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A UTHOR : 



ROWE, JOSHUA 




TITLE: 



CONTRIBUTIONS TOA 
HISTORY OF THE ... 



PLACE: 




DA TE : 

1878 



[ENG.l 



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932.0U2 

R792 Rowe, Joshua Brooking:, 18a7-1908. 

Contributions to a history of the Cistercian houses of Devofl. 
By J. Brooking Rowe ... Plymouth tGng.j W. Brendon and 
son, 1878. 

9 n. I.« |3r1D8 p. Ind. icenefit. miileM. 8 pi. (Incl. plnn) 20^. 

Iteprtnted from the Trnnsnctlonn of tlie DeTonshIre association. 

CoifTRifTA. — Bncklntirl. — Buckfnst.— Newenham. — Dunkeswell.— Ford. 



1, CIstercliiDS In Enfland. 2. Devon. Eng.— Church hHtory. 
8. Abbeys — England. 



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CONTKIBUTIONS TO A HISTOEY 



OF THK 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES 



OF 



DEVON. 



BY 



J. BROOKING ROWE, 

PELI.OW OF THE SOCIKTT OP ANTIftCARIES ; 

FELLOW OF THK I.IvNKAN SOCIETY; 

MRHBKS OP THK ROYAL ARCH^Ol.OGIC »L IN-TlTiTK OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND; 

HONORARY MEMBK.R OP THK KOVAL INSTITUTION OF CORNWALL; 

AUTHOR OF "a FAUNA OF DEVON;" 

"th* ecclesiasxjcal histout op old pltmouth;" 

ETC. ETC. 



PLYMOUTH : 
W. BRENDON AND SON, 26, GEORGE STREET. 

1878. 



V (, - 1 1 ^ 3 c 



ERRATA. 



Pjure 5, paragraph 6, last line, for " among ' read i/». 
Z 39, for Sir George Augustus -Heathfield" read Sir George Auguntus 

Eliott. 
„ 85, paragraph 123, line 12, for " Bishop " read Abbot. 
106, „ 1*3, „ 4, for "Erne "read £m«. 
J23 ,^ 179, „ 1, for" Churstowe" read CAwrf^*''^***. 

I 141,' ,'! 206, „ 6. for "M" read 5. 
„ 142, line 6, for " hortis" read hoglis. 

142, » 6, for " Trivarunt " read Triverunt. 







NOTE. 

The following papers are reprinted from the Transacti(yn% 
of the Devonshire Association. Referring to an observation 
in paragraph 2, page 4, as I arranged my materials, I found 
it unnecessary to carry out my original intention of giving 
a concise history of each Abbey, as by so doing I should 
have been repeating to a great extent what is already in 
print. Buckland and Buckfast I have treated somewhat 
fully. What I have said of Xeweuham is only additional 
to the collections of Mr. Davidson, and the whole may be 
considered as supplementary to the works of Dugdale and 
Oliver, and may be of assistance to the author who at some 
future period undertakes to write a full history of these 
religious houses, the inmates of which did so much to make 
our county a good land— a land of wheat and of barley, of 
flocks and of herds. 



16, LOCKYER StUKET, 

Plvmoith. 



CONTENTS. 



Inteoduotoet . . • • * 

The CisTEECiAN Obdee . • • * 

BiroKiAin> . • • ' • 

Documents belatinq to Buckland . 
f HI Abbots of Buckland . ' • 

Pediobee of the Redvebs Family . 

Plates. [See par. 61, page 51.] 

Buckland Documents, etc. 

Buckland Ministebs' Accounts, 31 and 32 Heney VIII. 

buckpast 

The Abbots of Buckfas* . 

Documents belatino to Buckpast . 

Newenham 

The Abbots op Newenham 

Documents belatino to Newenham . 

DUNKESWELL 

The Abbots uf Dunkeswell 

FOED 

The Abbots of Foed 





4 

3 


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4 


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37 




. 41 






. 46 






. 08 






. 130 


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. 131 






. 139 






. 167 


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. 193 






. 159 






. 170 


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. 171 






, 192 





THE 



CISTEECIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



BUCKLAND. 






THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



1. We have in this county (for although Thomcombe was 
in 1842 made a part of Dorsetshire, I include Ford Abbey as 
belonging to Devon) examples both of the earliest and latest 
foundations of the Cistercian order of monks. 

Always excepting the most valuable work of the late Dr. 
Oliver, little attention has been hitherto paid to the monastic 
institutions and ruins of the county. Perhaps this neglect 
has arisen from the unfortunate state of decay into which 
nearly all the buildings have fallen. Devonshire seems to 
have suffered more than any other part of England, and cannot 
be said to possess any monastic ruin of importance, and there 
is none perhaps except Dartington and Ford, in which the 
existing remains give any idea of its former architectural 
glories. And yet Devonshire possessed upwards of thirty re- 
ligious houses, some of the first importance, and ranking among 
the noblest in England. The bare mention of the great Bene- 
dictine monasteries of Exeter and Tavistock, the Cluniac 
house at Barnstaple, the five abbeys of the Cistercians dis- 
tributed over the county, and last, but by no means least, the 
Augustinian Priory of Plympton, to say nothing of the 
numerous smaller establishments of the preaching orders and 
friars, will show how much of interest there is in the investi- 
gation of the subject. 

2. Unfortunately, the task is not easy; and to work out 
properly the history of even one of these, requires an amount 
of time which few are able, and still fewer willing, to devote. 
But even by a person whose time is much occupied, and with 
whom the labour is one of love, a something can be accom- 
plished; and I think that a concise history of each house, 



I 






4 THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

embracing all the known facts of interest connected with it, 
such as I am about to endeavour to give, will be of some 
little use. I propose to give a short history of each of the 
Cistercian abbeys from its foundation to its fall, to refer 
briefly to the various abbots, to enumerate the possessions of 
the monks, and their holders after the dissolution, and to 
describe from personal examination such of the buildings as 
remain. And without giving in every particular my authorities, 
I may say that 1 have consulted every author who has touched 
upon the subject, from the ponderous folios of Oliver and 
Dugdale and Polwhele, and the less unwieldy quartos of Pole, 
Prince, and Lysons, down to the more concise but not-to-be 
despised pages of the traveller's hand-book and the local 
guide, and even to the magazine article and the newspaper 
paragraph. 

3. But before proceeding to the special subject of each 
abbey, it will be convenient to consider briefly, by way of 
introduction, the history of the order, the objects its members 
had in view in its formation, and their rule of life, and also to 
refer to the buildings, and to show how they were especially 
constructed to meet the wants of the community. 

4 As is well known to those who have looked into the 
history of the monastic orders, the Cistercian sprang in the 
eleventh century from the Benedictine order, and had its rise 
in an attempt to abridge the luxury and put an end to the 
worldly spirit which then pervaded monastic life. 

5. Tn 1098 a few monks of the Abbey of Molesme, in the 
diocese of Langres, took counsel, and resolved to endeavour 
to stem the tide, and leaving their own monastery, wandered 
forth under the leadership of their abbot Robert, and settled 
down in a desert spot about fifteen miles south of Dijon, and 
on St. Benedict's day laid the foundation of that famous order 
which in its day and generation exercised such an important 
influence throughout Europe, which sent forth so many men 
distinguished for their piety and their learning, which gave 
to the church many a pope and bishop, which in less than a 
century possessed nearly two thousand monasteries, each and 
for many a year the centre of a life of self-denial, piety, 
frugality, and industry, each spreading around it an atmos- 
phere of well-directed labour, each exercising an influence felt, 
at least in England, perhaps even to the present day. 

6. Although Alberic and Stephen Harding (the latter an 
Englishman, and one of the West Country, a native of Sher- 
borne), who succeeded Eobert in the government of the 
newly-established order, did much in laying down the lines 



INTRODUCTORY. 5 

which were to be the rules for future guidance, neither were 
very successful in inducing others to follow their example in 
living a life of such austerity as they proposed. But Hardin<T 
was comforted by the vision vouchsafed to him of a great 
multitude washing their white robes in a fountain, which he 
took to be an assurance that his labours would one day be 
rewarded It was not until the great St. Bernard, who in 
lllo with thirty companions had knocked at the gate 
and obtained admission to Citeaux, had joined the monks 
that the order, in spite of the criticisms, the scofls, and the 
jealousies of its brethren, began to grow in popular favour 
±rom that time the vision of Stephen Harding began to be 
tulhlled, and soon the poor buildings of Cistercium were too 
small to accommodate those who applied for leave to enrol 
themselves among the ranks of the new brotherhood. 

7. Before the Reformation it is estimated that the order 
possessed about 3500 houses, 109 of which were in England 
The first founded in this country was that of Waverley in 
Surrey, in 1129; and one of the earliest was that of Buckfast- 
leigh, m this county. 

8. What were the objects which these men set before 
them? What was it that gave them such a reputation? 
What was it that made men exclaim that the whole church 
was full of their high reputation and opinion of their sanctity 
as It were with the odour of some divine balsam, and there 
is no country or province wherein this vine loaded with 
blessings has not spread its branches?* An endeavour to 
answer these questions would be out of place here, as it 
would necessitate an investigation, not only into the 'causes 
which moved the founders of the order to separate them- 
selves from their former associates in the religious life but 
also to consider the history of the time, and the social and 
political state of the people in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. Briefly, however, it would seem that the secret 
was m the unquestionable sincerity and honesty of purpose 
which characterized the order in its early days, in the self- 
sacnfice shown, and the labours to which the monks gave 
themselves up ; in their appealing by their simple mode of 
life to the feelings of the lower classes, and in their avoid- 
ance of the ease and luxury which even then was too fre- 
quently a scandal and a blot on the religious life. 

9. In the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, the 
lot of the Cistercian monk was a hard one. The rules drawn 
up by Harding in his Carta caritatis, the Charter of Love, were 

• Cardinal de Vitry. Fox, p. 293. 



i 



6 THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

strictly enforced, and it must have required no small confi- 
dence in his powers of endurance when the novice took the 
vows binding him for life to the austerities of the order. 
The monasteries were situated in such secluded spots as to 
render any intercourse with the outside worid difficult. The 
food of the inmates was of the plainest kind, silence was rigidly 
enforced, communication was carried on within the walls 
mainly by signs, the fratry or day-room had no fireplace, 
and was exposed to the rigour of the weather, one end being 
left open to the air ; and when the poor monk, after perchance 
his supper of fruit and herbs, sought his dormitory, the cold 
night air played about his hard couch, admitted by the slits 
in the long wall, unglazed and unshuttered, which served as 
windows. The stranger or wayfarer was welcomed and hospi- 
tably treated, but he was not allowed to enter the refectory or 
cloister. Luxury, ease, and the ordinary comforts of life were 
frowned upon, and for a long time banished. Labour and 
prayer, prayer and labour, alone occupied the thoughts of the 
Cistercian. 

10. They were the farmers proper of the monastic orders. 
While other communities had their mills and granges mainly 
for their own use, and the use of those about them, the Cister- 
cian made agriculture his business, and sent the products of 
his land forth for the use of the outer world. It is somewhat 
difficult to realize the scale on which farming was conducted 
on the estates of a great Cistercian abbey. I think our 
Devonshire houses were small in comparison with those in 
other parts of the country; but when we recollect that a 
Continental one had soon after its foundation 10,000 sheep, 
1,000 goats, 2,000 pigs, 500 cows, 200 mares, and 100 horses, 
we can easily understand that extensive buildings were re- 
quired, and a large staff necessary for the conduct of such a 
business. How then was the labour accomplished ? Not by 
the monks ; for they were few in number. 

11. In every Cistercian house were two classes — the monks 
proper and the conversi, the masters and the servants. Both 
classes took the vows ; but the lives of the conversi were spent 
mainly in labour upon the farms and other menial work, per- 
fonning such religious duties only as might be reasonably 
expected from lay folk, who had to obtain their livelihood by 
the sweat of their brow. They were the poorest of the poor, 
and often the vilest ; and many sought the convent when no 
other door was open to them, and death stared them in the 
fece. Taken in hand then by the monks, compelled to earn 
their bread, they soon became useful, and the outcast of 



INTIiODUCTOKY. 7 

society found in the Church a shelter denied him by the 
world. The number of monks proper was comparatively 
small ; the conversi were numerous. At Clairvaux it seems 
that preparation was made for about 350 ; and at Fountains 
Mr Sharpe calculated that 200 could be accommodated. 
Where were such numbers housed? Mr. Sharpe answers 
this question very satisfactorily, and to his recently-published 
books on the subject of Cistercian architecture I must refer 
all interested m the general subject. I will, however, briefly 
indicate the ordinary features of the arrangements of the 
buildings. 

12. In the first place, the church was to be provided 
This, according to the rules, was always to be in the form of 
a cross, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. The choir or 
more properly chancel, was of small dimensions ; no Lady 
chapel ; but chapels are frequently found in the transepts. 
Ihe tower was low. There were to be no representations of 
the human figure. Stained glass was forbidden ; pictures and 
organs were not allowed ; but as time crept on these rules 
were neglected, and the Cistercian church in its architecture 
became less severe. It would seem that the rule was, that 
the church should be on the north, and the other building's 
on the south ; but we shall find that there were exceptions 
to this. Supposing ourselves leaving the church on the 
south side through the transept, we should have on the east 
the chapter- house, and on the west the east walk of the 
cloister and beyond the fratry or day-room of the monks 
over which would be their scriptorium and dormitory, con- 
nected by a flight of steps with the church. Turnincr to the 
west, we should enter the south walk of the cloister, and have 
on our left hand successively the kitchen, refectory, and offices, 
and following the same walk, leaving the western arcade on 
our right, we should enter that part of the building, the special 
home of the servants of the monastery, to which Mr. Sharpe 
has happily given the name of the Domus Conversorura. In 
the greater monasteries this was sometimes 300 feet lonc^ 
Those who know Fountains will doubtless recollect the nobfe 
vaulted building which is foolishly called the cloister, mea- 
suring about this length. This is the Domus Conversonim, 
and over it was the dormitory of the conversi. 

13. You will see from Mr. Sharpe's model plan, given in 
the first part of his work, that access was thus easily gained 
to the church by all. It was divided, probably by means 
of wooden partitions, for the use of, firstly, the monks, who 
took the east end; secondly, the conversi, who used the 



8 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



aisles and the last bays of the nave ; thirdly, the outsiders, 
the inhabitants of the adjoining villages and others, to whom 
was allotted the centre of the nave. 

14. Hills and highlands were always avoided in the selec- 
tion of a site for an abbey. The Cistercian's habitation was 
far from the haunts of men; in a valley, and as far as possible 
in the narrowest part of it, and close to a river, the settlement 
was made ; and in such a situation in many a fertile spot 
throughout England the farmer-monk made his home. In 
five of such localities in our fair county, members of the 
order, at varying intervals, took up their abode. The earliest 
house was founded in 1137, only nine years after the first — 
that of Waverley, in Surrey — was planted in England ; and 
the remaining four were established at different times — one 
in the twelfth, and the other three in the thirteenth century. 
While we can boast one of the first, we can also claim one 
of the latest in England. The one I am now about to speak 
of is the last founded. 

15. The Abbey of Buckland was founded by Amicia, the 
mother of Isabella, wife of William de Fortze, Earl of Albe- 
marle, a lady connected with both those great families which 
had shown such love for the Cistercian, which had done so 
much to extend his order, and which had endowed it with so 
many rich possessions. Baldwin Earl of Devon had founded 
Quarr, in the Isle of Wight ; and William le Gros, Earl of 
Albemarle, had founded the Abbeys of Meaux and Vallis 
Dei, both for the Cistercians, besides houses for other orders ; 
and we may conjecture that it was the consideration of what 
had been done by her ancestors and the ancestors of her son- 
in-law, and the good results which were apparent from their 
benefactions, which induced Amicia, the widowed countess 
of Baldwin, seventh Earl of Devon, to provide another place 
of settlement for Cistercian brethren. 

16. The monks having already houses in other parts of 
the county, and the south-west being unprovided, none being 
nearer than Buckfastleigh, Amicia resolved that her new 
colony should be planted amidst the family possessions on 
the banks of the Tavy. She therefore acquired, either by 
purchase or gift from her daughter Isabella, certain lands 
which were vested in her by deed, dated 1273, the King's 
confirmation of which is dated 1275; and in the eighth 
year of Edward I. (1280) she signed the foundation deed of 
Buckland Abbey, vesting in the monks and their successors 
the manors of Buckland, Bickleigh, and Walkhampton, with 
the advowsons thereof, and the hundred of Koborough, for 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 9 

the use of the abbey dedicated in honour of God and the 
blessed Mary, mother of God, and the blessed Benedict. 
Jrom 1273 to 1280 the pious Amicia was, we may conclude 
busily preparing the site and buildings for the reception of 
the monks and their servants. 

17. The foundress did not go to Ford, as might have been 
expected, for men to fill the new house, but she asked the 
Abbot of Quarr, the house founded, as I have mentioned, 
by the restless Baldwin, the second earl, to send her some 
monks, and accordingly Eobert the first abbot* and others 
were sent from the Isle of Wiglit to Buckland. As frequently 
happened, there was trouble to begin with. It was one of the 
rules of the order that there should be no interference with 
the parish priest, and that the houses should be under the 
jurisdiction of the bishop. But when the monks came to 
Buckland they seem to have broken both these rules; they 
began to celebrate divine offices without any consent or 
license of the bishop. The bishop of the diocese, the famous 
Walter Bronescombe, was not a prelate to view with indif- 
ference any encroachment upon the privileges of his see, or 
to permit any interference with, or contempt of, the spiritual 
jurisdiction rightly belonging to him, and when he heard 
that the newly-arrived monks had begun to exercise spiritual 
functions in the neighbourhood of their house, he quickly 
placed them under an interdict. We do not know the date 
of this, but, as we have seen, there were buildings used by or for 
the use of the monks before the charter of Amicia. The inter- 
dict is referred to in a deed of Bronescombe's, dated 27th May, 
1280, in which he recites, that having been petitioned by the 
Queen Eleanor (who had doubtless been urged to take up the 
cause of the monks by Amicia), he thereby removed the inter- 
dict, and permitted them to celebrate divine service until the 
feast of Pentecost next following. In June, satisfied with 
the conduct of the new-comers, the bishop extended the time 
to Michaelmas ; but on the following St. Mary Magdalene's- 
day (the day of his death, 22nd July, 1280) Bronescombe 
released the monks from all further supervision, and gave 
them permission to perform all divine offices for ever there- 
after. 

18. As I said just now, the Foundation charter vesting the 
land in the abbey is dated 8th Edward I. It is interesting 
to notice how careful grantees of land in those days were to 
have their rights confirmed by all persons in whom there could 
be possibly any claim, or right of claim, therein. We con- 

♦ Foundation Deed, Appendix C. 
C 



'i 



10 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Ill 



il'i 



stantly find deed after deed professing to quit claim to land 
which we might have thought was effectually vested in the 
holder. Here, besides the deed of foundation from Amicia 
and the grant from her daughter, the wealthy and powerful 
Isabella de Fortibus, it was thought necessary also to obtain 
confirmation of the latter from the King, of whom the 
lands were to be held in capite. And later, in 1291, when 
it would appear that the Countess Amicia, "nohilis mulier 
mater nostra carissima dcmiina Amicia " was dead, another 
confirmation was obtained from her daughter * The deeds 
are very interesting, containing the names of places very 
familiar to us. The neighbourhood does not seem so utterly 
desolate and uncared-for as might have been supposed. 
We find mention of stone walls, boundaries, roads, paths, 
and houses. Soon after the foundation the title of the 
abbey to the hundred of Roborough was called in question, 
and the abbot was cited in the king's courts to show his 
authority in opposition to that of the crown ; and although 
he produced the charters and confirmation by the king, as 
the hundred was not mentioned in the latter, judgment was 
given for the crown. But this difficulty must have been 
got rid of; for the abbey held the hundred down to the 
dissolution. , 

19. From* the registers of the bishops of Exeter, so dili- 
Ngently searched by Dr. Oliver for the purposes of his Mmas- 

ticon, from a few old deeds, and from leases granted by the 
various abbots, we gather some scanty knowledge of the 
history of the abbey. No Cartulary, or any other important 
record of the abbey, is to be found in any public office or 
library, or, as far as I can ascertain, in any private one. 

20. In 1336 (11 Edward III.), not 1328, as stated by 
Dr. Oliver, the royal license was granted to the abbey and 
convent to crenellate the abbey. Mansum aUatim sum. 
Abbas et conventus de Buckelond. Perhaps the fear of the 
foreigner had something to do with this fortification. It was 
not long after this (1339), that the French landed and burnt 
a great part of Plymouth; and William, the then abbot, 
might have thought that the herds and well -stored barns of 
the monks would prove a source of temptation to the 
roving Breton, and needed protection, and the abbey was 
battlemented.t 

• Appendix E. 

f « Very few houses of any importance were built in the thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth centuries without being fortified ; and the law required 
a licence from the crown before any house was allowed to lye fortified."— 
Parker. The following is an extract from a licence to fortify (1482) given 



h 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



11 



21. The monks appear to have lived a quiet, unosten- 
tatious life— not greedy of wealth, or desirous of adding to 
their possessions, not quarrelling with their neighbours, as 
monks often did, and as landowners sometimes do even in 
our more enlightened times, but still occasionally involved in 
disputes with reference to their rights. Indeed, almost the 
first mention we have of the doings of the monks is to be 
found in the record of legal proceedings taken against them 
by a servant of the Abbot of Tavistock— his forester, one 
Thomas Gyreband— who complained, that having charge 
of the wood of Blakemoresham, and coixiing to a place in it 
called Ivyoak, he found Eobert the Abbot of Buckland 
and others felling the wood and oaks there, and that on his 
attempting to prevent this, the abbot and the others with 
darts and hatchets assaulted and beat him, and with a bow and 
an arrow made of ash, headed with iron and steel, wounded 
him in the right arm, and afterward stole from him an outer 
garment. The Abbot and Convent of Buckland pleaded 
firstly their clergy, and denied the assault and robbery. 
Thomas got the worst of the affair; for he contradicted 
himself, and the abbot and his monks were acquitted, and 
Thomas committed to gaol for making a false accusation. 
And later in the pleadings we find the whole history of the 
affair. Blackmoresham wood was, I expect, on the opposite 
side of the Tavy, and belonged, as the forester said, to the 
Abbey of Tavistock, but the Cistercians had on the river a weir, 
and were obliged to keep it in order, and had a right to take 
from this place wood for its repair. Whilst obtaining wood, 
'Thomas assaulted the defendants, and drew blood, and 

b^ Mr. J. H. Parker: "Edward by the grace of God King of England & 
trance and Lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, 
greeting. Know ye that we considering the good & gracious services which 
our dearly beloved subject Edmund Bedingfeld Esq™, hath before these times 
rendered to us from day to day, and which he still continues inclined to 
render : of our special favours have granted and given license and by these 
presents do grant and give license, for us and our heirs, as far as in us lyeth, 
to the said Edmund, that he at his will and pleasure, build, make, and 
construct, with stone, lime & sand, towers and walls in and about his manour 
of Oxburgh in the County of Norfolk, and that manour with such towers 
and walls to inclose, and those towers and walla to embattle^ kernel and macke' 
collate: and that manour so inclosed, and those walls and towers aforesaid so 
embattled, kernell'd, and machicoUated, built and constructed, to hold for 
himself and his heirs for ever, without perturbation, impeachment, molesta- 
tion, impediment, or hindrance from us or our heirs or others whomsoever. 
And besides, of our abundant grace, we pardon, remit, and release to the 
aforesaid Edmund, all transgressions, offences, misprisions, and contempts, 
by him the said Edmund before these times, however done or perpetrated, on 
account of his enclosing such walls and towers, embattled, kemelled, mache- 
collated, and built as aforesaid, in and upon his said manour," &c. &c. 



i 



in 



12 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



V ■ 

n 






in self-defence one of the Buckland men shot Thomas 
with an arrow in the arm, whereupon he lied, leaving his 
coat, bow, and hatchet, which William le Pye and another 
carried away, not as a robbery, but because they were left 
there. And the jury found that the defendants were rightly 
in the wood and not trespassers, and they were acquitted.* 

22. In 1448 the monks considered themselves aggrieved for 
that the Lord of the Manor of Stonehouse, James Derneford, 
had, in defiance of the rights of the abbot and monks as 
lo-ds of the hundred of lioborough, set up at Stonehouse a 
pillory and tumbrel, and had held a court of frank-pledge 
there. This was a usurpation, and gave rise to much trouble 
and unpleasantness. The monks would not allow James 
Derneford to use these marks of authority, and he would not 
admit that he was wrong, or remove them. At last, as recited 
in the award, the whole matter was referred, by the media- 
tion of friends, to the decision of William Hylle, the Prior of 
Plympton, and James Chudlegh, Esq. The award was in 
favour of the abbey ; and besides removing the pillory and 
tumbrel, James Derneford had to pay £20, as a fine for his 
encroachment.! 

23. Thirty years later we find the monks defendants in a 
case, which was apparently brought against them, on behalf 
of the Crown, for the purpose of ascertaining the rights of 
the Duchy of Cornwall in the Forest of the Dartmoors.I The 
Abbot, Thomas Oliver, was cited to appear at Lydford, for that 
he did on the fourth day of October (18 Edward IV.), 1478, 
intrude and make claim upon land in Dartmoor within the 
bounds and marks of the forest, and was found culpable ; 
and the jury also found that all the lands within the pre- 
cmcts, marks, and bounds of Dartmoor were of the ancient 
demesnes of the said prince, and were called the Fentield 
and Common of Devonshire; and that all waives, strays, 
escheats, and presentments of assaults and bloodshed, plaints, 
writs of right according to the custom of the manor of Lyd- 
ford and assizes of land, were appropriate to the court of 
Lydford. As doth appear, says Westcote, by ancient record 
remaining in the castle of Lydford. § 

24. The agreement in the muniment-room at Powderhara, 
which has been quoted by 01iver,|| proves how much the 
later Cistercians had departed from the strictness of the early 

• Oliver, p. 385. f See Appendix F. 

T The forest of Dartmoor was permanenUy attached to the Duchy of 
ComwaU in 1337. 
§ Weetcote's Devon, p. 85. H Oliver's Monastieon, p. 381. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



13 



rules of their order. It is dated 28th May, 1522, and is 
made between Abbot Whyte and Eobert Derkeham, and 
shows how Kobert, in return for assisting daily in the choir 
and teaching four boys of the convent, and also teaching the 
boys ana any monks who might wish to learn music and the 
organ, was to be paid an annuity of £2 13s. 4d., to be provided 
with a decent table, to have a furnished room over the west 
gate of the monastery, and a gown of the value of 12s. every 
year ; to have the reversion of a tenement at Milton, and until 
it lell m, feeding for two cows, and a garden, he paying half 
the rent. One would have thought that this was very fair 
pay as times went for Eobert's work ; but his room over 
the west gate was cold and dreary in the winter, so he had 
also five ounces of bread, a quart of beer, and a wax candle 
every night throughout the year, and thirty horse-loads of 
taggots. With these and his books and organ he ou^ht to 
have made himself tolerably comfortable. He apparently 
appreciated them, and continued in their enjoyment for 
some time, for he was alive at the dissolution, and the grant 
was allowed by the Augmentation Office, 18th December. 

25. The list of the abbots is incomplete; the followin<» 
ac^unt contains all that I can glean with reference to thenf 
The names of the first and second abbots are somewhat 
uncertain ; from Eobert being mentioned in the Foundation 
charter, and as the abbot complained of in the proceedincrs 
by the forester Thomas Gyreband, it may be concluded that 
he was the first abbot, and, if so, it may be taken for granted 
that the second was William, who is mentioned in a grant 
17 Edward L, 1288, by Margaret de Eipariis, the widow of 
Jialdwin, fifth of that name and eighth Earl of Devon the 
only son of Amicia, the foundress, by which deed she re- 
leased to William the Abbot of Bocland and his convent her 
claim of dower m the churches of Bocland and Walkhampton 
in consideration of an annuity of £^ paid to her clerk 
VVilliam de Brenton, for which in default of due payment 
the sheriff was to levy by writ oi fieri facias on the goods of 
the abbey.* Bishops Quivell and Bitton confirmed the grant 
of Buckland Church to the Abbey. 

Galfridus was the next abbot. During the time of his rule 
there were many disputes as to the injury done to the pro- 
perty of the Abbey by the working of the silver mines in 
the neighbourhood. The complaints of the monks and the 
proceedings thereupon are to be found in the Bolls of 

• Arehteol. Journal, vol. v. p. 68. 



ii 



14 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



t 



Parliament* Thomas Bitton, the Bishop of Exeter, in an 
instrument dated 1305, appropriated the church of Walk- 
hampton to the use of the monks who were its patrons, and 
it recites the enormous devastation done to the woods and 
lands of the abbey by the working of the silver mines by the 
crown in and around them. The late Sir E. Smirke supposed 
these to be the silver mines of Beer, which were about this 
time worked with success, but as I do not find .that the abbey 
ever had any property on the western side of the Tavy, it is 
rather difficult to see how their lands could be injured, and 
I think there may be some mistake in the identification. 

Thomas was abbot as early as 1311, and in 1316 we 
find that he and the prior of Plympton entered into an 
arrangement (upon the intervention of the Bishop, Walter 
Stapeldon, with reference to suit and service of the latter 
at the hundred court of Koborough in respect of the lands 
of the priory in Old Blakeston, which was situate within the 
hundred, and it was agreed that the attendance should thence- 
forth be limited to three courts a year instead of, as I suppose, 
four, as theretofore. 

The fifth abbot was a second William ; he was party to an 
agreement with Ralph de Bellworthy, also with reference to 
suit and service at the hundred court of Koborough. He 
was succeeded by Thomas Wappelegh, John Bryton, and 
Walter, successively abbots in 1356, 1385, and 1392. 

In 1418-19 we find, from a lease granted to William 
Pomeroy and his wife and daughter at Buttyckyswordy, in 
the liianor of Walkhampton, for 65 years, that John was 
prior. In May, 1442, William Rolff, who had the protracted 
litigation with James Derueford, of Stonehouse, succeeded. 
Of the abbots following him w^e know little. John Spore 
succeeded Rolff, 28th September, 1449, and John Hylle, 
October 21st, 1454. Thomas Olyver became abbot 20th 
March, 1463, and it was against him that the proceedings 
at Lydford were taken for the monks* trespass upon Dart- 
moor forest, and during the long time that he was head of 
the monastery, we find him granting many leases of land for 
terms of years determinable on lives. He espoused the cause 
of the Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., and was 
proscribed by Richard, but lived to see the success of the 
former, and continued abbot of Buckland for several years 
after his accession. John Brundon, the next, was abbot for 
a short time only. Thomas Whyte succeeded, and was abbot 
before 1511 and after 1527. It was with him that Robert 

* Mot. Parliam ; seo also Oliver'i Mmattieon, p. 385. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



15 



Derkeham, the organist, entered into the agreement I have 
referred to. o "^vc 

The sixteenth and last abbot was John Toker or Tucker a 
member of a Devonshire family and brother to Robert Tucker 
alderman, and afterwards, in 1543, Mayor of Exeter, who! 
Prince says, in his memoir of his grandson William Tucker, 
Dean of Lichfield, " with great honour discharged the office "♦ 
Ihe family was settled at Moretonhampstead. The later 
pedigree will be found in the Visitation of 1620. He was 
blessed by the bishop as abbot of Buckland, 7th June 1528 
and just ten years afterwards he surrendered the house and 
Its belongings to the king. During the twelve months, 
immediately before the surrender, he had granted leases (no 
doubt for a consideration) of the rectorial tithes of the parish 
chureh of Buckland, and of Walkhampton, Bickleigh, and 
bheepstor and also of Bampton, to his brother Robert and his 
nephews William and Hugh Tucker. 

26. At the dissolution there were twelve monks in the 
house, to all of whom pensions were granted. No complaint 
was made as to their conduct ; no breath of scandal or word 
of reproach rested on this or any of the Cistereian houses • 
orindeed, as far as I know, and judging from the pension 
lists, on any of the religious houses in the west country. 
Ihus, after only about two centuries and a half, the land 
dedicated to God, and set apart for pious uses by Amicia 
was snatched from its holders, who had so well discharged the 
trust committed to them, by a tyrannical king and his rapacious 
courtiers, aided by a compliant and time-serving parliament. 
With miserable pittances the monks were sent forth into a 
world to which they were unaccustomed, while the buildin-s 
which had been handed down to them, some of which they 
had erected, and the lands they and their predecessors hail 
tilled and improved, were given to those who had no love for 
the monk, who had thus toiled for the stranger who now entered 
into his labours; while, worst of all, the chureh was gutted 
and ruthlessly converted into a dwelling-place for the usurper. 
Whatever opinions may be held as to the expediency of the 
existence of monasteries, it is impossible to look impartially 
into the history of their dissolution without coming to the 
conclusion that a grievous wrong was done to the people of 
England, and an injury inflicted upon the commonwealth 
trora which perhaps it has not yet recovered. This is not the 
place to enter upon a defence, and I do not now wish to 
attempt to extenuate, or to say anything upon the religious 

• Prince's Worthies^ ed. 1810, p. 735. 



v^ 



16 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



bearings of the subject, but the fact remains, that while before 
the dissolution these houses were sources of immense good, 
mingled perhaps with some things that were undesirable, on 
their extinction, their belongings were squandered, and no 
effort made to use them for the benefit of the people who had 
so largely profited by them in former days. It is very evi- 
dent that in such an establishment as that of Buckland, 
where there was no grasping after an accumulation of wealth, 
no endeavour to extend the possessions of the house, that the 
labours of these monks must have been productive of great 
good to the locality, and its loss severely felt by the lower 
and middle classes of the neighbourhood. 

27. The revenues of the abbey were at this time £241 
17s. 9Jd. per annum, and it was easy to pay out of them, or 
out of the proceeds arising from the sale of the plunder, the 
pensions granted to Tucker, the last abbot, and his monks. 
The abbot had £60 per annum ; and the monks various sums, 
beginning with Thomas Maynard, who received £5 6s. 8d., 
down to John Jordan, who had only £3 6s. 8d. a year. 

28. What then were the possessions of the abbey at the 
time of the dissolution ? I have said that the monks were 
not avaricious. From the foundation charter, and the grants 
and confirmations, we know that it was originally endowed 
with the manors of Buckland, Bickleigh, Walkhampton, and 
CoUumpton, and the hundred of Roborough, with the ad vow- 
sons of Buckland, Bickleigh, and Walkhampton, and much 
later, in exchange for a part of the hundred of Eoborough, 
given up to the Corporation of Plymouth in 1464, the 
church of Bampton. We find from the Valor Ecclesiastictcs 
that at the end of the two hundred and sixty years of its 
existence the abbey possessed very little more than is men- 
tioned in the original grants, the additions consisting only of 
a house in Exeter, doubtless for the use of the abbots on their 
visits to the bishop, worth £1 6s. 8d. per annum, and a tene- 
ment in Saltash worth 8s. per annum. How these were 
obtained we do not know. 

29. Before going further, I may refer very briefly to the 
seals of the abbey. One, apparently the earliest, is from an 
impression attached to a deed dated 1310, in which we see in 
the centre, under a canopy, the Blessed Virgin and Child, and 
below is a shield with what appears to be a lion rampant, 
probably representing the arms of the Redvers, Earls of Devon. 
Between the shield and the canopy the word "Amicia" 
appears. There is around the margin the legend "sigillvm 

ECCLESIE LOCI S'CI BENEDICTI DE BOCLAN." 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 17 

Another, of about the same date, is said to be a counter or 
private seal of the abbot ; but I am inclined to think that it 
does not belong to Buckland, at least I can find no abbot 
who was named Stephen, which word appears in the legend. 
The seal is from an impression in the British Museum. 

Another, mentioned by Dr. Oliver, very similar to the last 
mentioned, has a figure of St. Benedict holding the crozier or 
pastoral staff in his right hand, and a book in his left. In the 
centre, between the figure, is the name Ami-cia divided. The 
legend is " if^ s. abbatie bocland sancti benedicti." 

A fourth has a right hand grasping a pastoral staff, from 
which is suspended an olive-branch. The staff passes through 
the letter A. The legend is " iji s. commune abbis et covent' 
S'ci benedicti." This last seal is very similar to that used 
by St. Bernard himself soon after tlie establishment of Clair- 
vaux in 1115,* and probably this device was used by many 
houses. 

The arms borne by the abbey were, quarterly, argent and 
gules, a crozier, in bend or. 

28. After the monks came George Pollard, of London, 
for whom the former were ousted from their valley home. 
The lands, church, conventual and domestic buildings, were 
then intact, and were granted to him the year after the 
surrender, 14th December, 1539, for a term of 21 years, at a 
rent of £23 3s. 5d., reserving to the king and his successors 
all great timbers, as well as all trees and wood in and upon 
the premises being or growing. 

29. Erom the next document it would seem (although it is 
not so recited) that George Pollard must have disposed of his 
interest under the royal lease, for we find that May 26th, 
1541, the king granted, in consideration of the good, true, 
and faithful service which his well-beloved servant, Richard 
Greynfeld (or, as we are accustomed to call him, Grenville), 
of Bideford, knight, heretofore done to us, as for the sum of 
£233 3s. 4d. paid by the said Richard Greynfeld, the reversion 
of the site of the monastery, houses, buildings, barns, tene- 
ments, meadows, pastures, feedings, and also all the church, 
belfry, and burial ground, and all houses, buildings, barns, 
dove- houses, orchards, gardens, pools, vivaries, land and soil, 
as well within as close and near to the site, sept, circuit, and 
precinct of the late monastery, as fully and wholly, and in as 
ample manner and form, as the last abbot and late convent 
held or enjoyed the same, paying £2 6s. 4|^d. yearly. And 
thus a descendant of the Sir Richard Grenville, who in his 

* See Archceol. Journal, voL xiv. p. 15. 
D 



18 



THE CISTEECIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



i 

I 



devotion in 1134 had founded and erected the Cistflrrian 
in the spoil of another house of the same order 

tJt ffu^^^u"*'"" ^^^. "»*' " '« ««'d that the bells in the 
tower of the abbey were given to the church of E^^ Buckland 
I do not know how this could happen, as therT waf no con 
nection between the abbey and th1s%hu?ch In Te tower at 
Egg Buck and there are at present three bells, one an alcTen 

fZ ',1 * *5'! 'f'S*'' ''"^^ <=<""« from any place. The 
two others are dated respectively 1682 and 1768. but mav 
have been re««t from older bells, as there were th^e bell"a^ 

^ftm^Z 'vt^ "^^"''"-'^ - *^ --'o'y of cih 

pil'i ^5^?i*"'''"f ^■'^ ""* '°"S continue the owners of 

were sold t E r "b''f *!i' T^^^.^''«' •'°-« «"•' '-d? 
were sow by Sir Richard and Lady Mary Grenville after 

1580, to John Hele and Christopher Harris for £:i 400 ■ and 
mne months later these conveyed the property to Sir Fmnds 
Drake, whose descendants stUl retain them t 

r.Z.J^^ r""' ^l^ ^^""^^ "^ Collumpton were sold to Sir 
George St. Leger, whose son sold them to Thomas Eisdon bv 

±S ^tL"*'™ ^'"'^'^ "P ?'' ''•'P<'-d of to tenants 'anJ 
to thTsw^L "°' "■"" "" *' «"'«^«d-"«. and from them 

33. Bickleigh and Walkhampton, and the lands of Hele and 

by John Slanniiig, September 24th, 1546, through whose 
descendants by the marriage of danghtere they mssed to 
the Heywoods, and frem them, by purehase, to Sb Cseh 
M^ey Lopes, and are now held bf his grundson sIr S:J 

34. The manor of Buckland, with the advowson of tbo 
churchy was sold, 12th April, 1546. to a London haberdLer 

ISed rfhe't '"kV''1; '"■i 9-^''- Their des^fnS 
continued in the neighbourhood for some time and inter 

mamed with the Coplestones, Prideauxes, Drakes' GlaniX 
and other Devonshire families About Ifion „,!' V " '"*^' 
thedeath Of William C^meMa^ ^^^^^^^^ ^-peX' 

were sold long leases being granted ; but the man Jwas 
retained for some years later. In 1660, howeverthTs was 
also disposed of to the Slannings, and from them dn The 

• JSxeh. Queen's Rem., T. G. 6211 N. f. 
t Appendix I. Brake pediyree. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



19 



marriage of daughters, it descended to the Heywoods in the 
same way as the Bickleigh and Walkhampton properties, and 
like them is now held by Sir Massey Lopes. The patronage 
of the vicarage was held by the Crymes family until a com- 
paratively late period. It now belongs to the Hayne family. 

35. Where the houses in Saltash and Exeter were situated 
I cannot ascertain, nor how or to whom they were disposed 

36. In conclusion I have to describe the remains of the 
Abbey buildings as they now exist, but I must first observe 
that I cannot vouch for the absolute correctness of eveiy 
statement I may make, inasmuch as the alterations, removals, 
and additions have been so extensive as to prevent absolute 
certainty of identification. Although I suspect that Sir Richard 
Grenville destroyed the greater part of the buildings, reserving 
only such as were useful for the purposes of his new house, 
yet much was left, portions of which appear to have been 
removed in recent years. 

37. The earliest drawing that I can find, — although it is 
very rough, is interesting and suggestive, and to some 
extent valuable, — is in the ancient map of the Forest of 
Dartmoor, brought under the notice of our society at the 
last Exeter meeting by Mr. C. Spence Bate. In that map 
the Abbey Church of Buckland is represented much as we 
should have expected to find it — a long church with choir, 
nave, and central tower. It is always pleasant to overthrow 
the theory of another, and I am able to do so with respect to 
Mr. Bate's theory, that the map is of the date 1240 or there- 
about. But at this time the Abbey Church could not have 
been there, for the Abbey was not founded or thought of 
for nearly forty years after. I think that the map is two 
centuries later than the date Mr. Bate assigns to it. You 
will notice the long cruciform building with low central 
tower,* no aisles, and south transept. The chancel longer 
than the nave is, I believe, the draughtsman's error, for the 
choir was always short, and there was no lady chapel, the 
whole church being dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. If there 
were aisles, I think they would have been shown, as the 
drawing is the largest of any on the map, and in the repre- 
sentations of much smaller churches, aisles are distinctly to 
be seen. The lines indicating buildings beyond, do not, I am of 
opinion, represent the parish church of Buckland Monachorum, 
but the Abbey buildings, and if so, here again the substantial 

" * Turres lapidae ad campanas non fiant, nee ligneffi altitudinis inunoderatte, 
quo} ordinis dedeceant simplicitatem." — Nom. Ciat. 



20 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVOIf. 



accuracy of the map is proved. One thing in the drawing 
I do not understand, the door-way shown^in the traTm 
As a general rule the conventual buildings of the Cisterckn, 
were o„ the south side of the church, but occa^ona y when 
the nature of he ground prevented their being so placed we 
find the buddings on the north, and so it wa^ at bS„7 
The Cistercians, and indeed nearly all monks Wd thl' 
valleys, and they preferred shelter I the Zll Jr 1 of 
the order. Here, on the south side of the church thT^nnH 
rises somewhat suddenly, and without a good deal of e^ava 

lo the north, therefore, the monks went, and I think wp mnv 
conclude that the chapter-house, the refectory, and the bu^ 
of the buddings were on the north side of the cloister 

Leland only just refers to the Abbey, and no further infnr 
niation ,s attainable with reference to the buiJd „'s unHI 
we come to Buck's view, published in 1734 n° which 
although as to the surrounding scenery, and also in the dmJ^ 
ing of some portions of the remains, there is a considerable 
amount of romance, it shows, that various alterations have 
been made, and some buildings altogether removed. Near y 
hfty years later we have a plan of the house and iS sur 
roundings. to which the same remarks apply, many erections 
being there shown which cannot now be fbund^ None of 
these help us m fixing the site of the conventual buUd"nc^ 
nor will the three important buildings still remaining tS' 
great extent intact-the church, the porter's lodTfafter which 
I P^^a query) or the barn-render ^us much aSistncL ' 

38. On visiting the house (for Abbey now is a misnomer^ 
after passing down one of the noble avenues leadTrrere-' 
to and resting on the high ground to the north to°adm[re 
the magnificent view of the country, on the banks of th! 

sM^fin'r** ^T' ^'^^"^•'■"S ''' ''"^^ towa4 he sea we 
shall find ourselves m a narrow valley shut in on tho nAJ^^f 

tTsf 'untn r Me 1^ ^^''""^ «^""' ^'0 ing toidTn 
west, unt 1 the little stream we cannot fail to notice falU 

into the nver some short distance below. A s^-t more su 
able for the Cistercian could not be found. Far from the busv 
town and haunts of men, and yet sufficiently near for the «.le 
of wool, and for disposing of the produce of their firms « e 
monks settled down to their varied tasks, annrayir'aml 
abounng. quickly made their little valley fertde.'^rd caused 
It to become the centre of a new life. 

39. Before the monks from Quarr could take Dosse«inn if 
was necessary that a church, or at least an o™K~or- 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



21 



ship should be provided, with a refectory and dormitory for 
the monks, a guest-room for strangers, and a porter's lodge. 
With these the little community started ; and soon the more 
stately church began to rise, with the domestic and farm 
buildings, the fratry, the scriptorium, the long building for 
the conversi, with sleeping-rooms above, and the great barn. 
The little stream was diverted into various channels, and 
used in different ways. One channel was the common sewer 
of the monastery, another, carefully banked and tended, led to 
the fish-ponds, important sources of supply in a Cistercian 
house. And so the Abbey of Buckland grew, and with their 
home barton of nearly 800 acres, besides a large extent of 
" moorland and pasture, with outlying farms, the little band 
had soon work enough to occupy their time and thoughts. 
And so they worked until the crash came, and they were . 
sent forth to live as best they might on the pensions allowed 
them. 

40. There has been found on the south side some little build- 
ing rubbish, but there is nothing to lead us to suppose that 
there was anything of consequence on this side. The cloister 
was probably on the north-east. Just inside the gate of the 
garden is an old wall, shown in Buck's view, running almost 
from north to south. At the extreme south end on the western 
side is a recess with a stone seat, and this wall may be the 
eastern wall of the cloister. West of this is a building, which 
I think may be the porter's lodge, and perhaps a part of the 
entrance gate. It is now used with the stables. The window 
in front is really a blocked-up door-way, opening into a little 
liall or porch, lighted with a window on the north. Below is 
a cellar, with a window west, and opposite the window an 
entrance (now blocked up) to some place beyond. Over the 
little hall is a small room, reached by a newel staircase in 
the turret, and over this a platform. The platform on the top 
of the turret is reached by the continuation of the staircase. 
The whole appears to be late fourteenth century work ; but in 
the arch in the cellar, and in the archway of the entrance, from 
what I have called the little hall, to the building beyond, what- 
ever it might have been, the character of the earlier work in 
the church is imitated. This building is always called the bell 
turret, which it certainly never was. It is shown in Buck's 
view, and on the plan of 1769, but then apparently connected 
with the church. 

41. Opposite this building, on the last-mentioned plan, 
are shown various erections not now to be found, but prob- 
ably represented by a group of buildings which either formed 



I 



'i 



oil 
Am 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



part of the monastery, or which were constnicted with the 
old materials ; more especially a large door-way facing west 
may be mentioned, and traces of other buildings extending' 
upwards towards the north may be seen. Nothing certain is 
known as to the situation of the churchyard, or of any of the 
important buildings ; but I have no doubt that the founda- 
tions of the latter are below the surface, and if excavation 
was permitted, considerable information with reference to 
many important matters, of which we are now entirely i<'no- 
rant, might be obtained. - "^ 

^ 42. The orchards, now as formerly, are on the north side 
west of the monastery, with a south aspect. The remains of 
three fish-ponds are easily made out, portions of the banks 
and traps remaining. The grand barn, upwards of 100 feet 
m length, with its tine door-way, remains externally much as 
the nionks left it. Useful to their successors, the barn was 
spared the destruction and mutilation suffered by its neicrh- 
bours. ' •' ^ 

43. The noble yews and cedars will not fail to attract the 
notice of the visitor as he approaches the house, otherwise 
the church, which we now come to. 1 think we may safely 
conclude that the present walls are those of the original 
church, and we have a plan at once simple and unusual ♦ 
consisting, as I have mentioned, of chancel, nave, and south 
tmnsept The present building is about 130 feet long and 
33 broad. The chancel is 24 feet long. The breadth of 
the transept is 24 feet, and the depth from north to south 
probably the same, consisting of two bays, the column divid- 
ing them still remaining on the east side. The south wall of 
the transept is gone, and the bay of the tower leading into 
It IS walled up. The capitals of the columns at the junction 
ot the tower and transept are clearly distinguishable, as well 
as the corbels, drawings of which I have here. These are very 
mteresting and if they are, as I believe them to be, Early 
-bnghsh, Mr. Sharpe tells me that they are the earliest known 
m Cistercian architecture. 

44. Built into a wall over a door-way in the grounds is a 
large boss of great interest, from which shafts are seen 
spreading off, and which has evidently been the centre of a 
groined ceiling. When I first saw it I thought it was a 
mitred head, but it is clearly the head of a female The 
upper pointed part is the head-dress, and below is a coronet 
and whether the work is early or late, I have little doubt 
out that It is intended to represent the features of the 
• The plan of Grey Abbey, County Down, Ireland, Ib aimilar. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



23 



foundress of the abbey, the widowed Countess Aniicia. From 
what part of the abbey it came it is impossible to say, and it 
is equally impossible to assign a reason for its preservation. 

45. On entering the house we shall find that it has been 
divided into a series of floors, and although somewhat in- 
tricate in its arrangements, it makes a very commodious and 
comfortable residence. It has, however, been so interfered 
with and so covered with plaster and battened throughout, 
that an investigation of architectural details is ditficult, and 
in many places impossible. The string course on either side 
of the nave can be traced here and there from end to end 
as far as the tower. The tower appears to be perfect. It has 
been divided into floors. In the second from the top the 
great arches over the crossing can be traced. On the south 
and west these are perfect, the latter especially so, the whole 
of the stonework being uncovered and as sharp as when the 
workmen left it five hundred years ago. The southern arch 
is partly built into and plastered, but no doubt perfect. The 
eastern one is entirely covered up; but I think it is of a 
different character, being one of construction only, and not of 
ornament as well. The northern archway is formed of rubble 
masonry, and is of a different [)itch, and I believe that there 
was a window here. The springers of the vaulting shafts 
remain, but I am inclined to think that the stone vaulting 
was never completed. Below the eastern arch we find north 
and south, parts of the columns, with their capitals, at the 
commencement of the chancel. The chancel arch was much 
lower than those of the nave and transept, but of the same 
character; and there seems to have been another arch of 
a similar size on the north side of the choir. On the 
north side of the nave is a very curious and beautifully 
vaulted little chamber, apparently opening from the tower, 
and with openings also on the east and west, with a window 
on the north. I think this must have been a porch or passage 
leading into the cloister, or in connection with the monks' 
dormitory, affording from thence easy access to the church. 
The church is not truly oriented, being situated E.N.E. The 
Cistercians do not seem to have been particular as to this 
matter. I have only briefly mentioned these points in connec- 
tion with the ancient buildings in order to draw attention to 
them, and in the hope that some one more skilled in working 
out the details of ancient buildings may take up the subject 
and give us a full architectural history of the Abbey Church 
of Buckland. 

46. Pass we now to the more modern house into which the 



24 



THE CISTEECUN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Cistercian Church was converted. The hall is a fine room 
decorated with panels and Jacobean carvings in oak, said to 
have been brought from the manor-houses of Callisham and 
Durance, in the parish of Heavy, by the Drakes. Some of 
the figures are beautifully carved, but unfortunately the whole 
has been painted over. Over the chimney-piece is the date 
MCCCCCLXXVi. Assuming this date to be genuine, and as 
it IS in plaster and corresponds with the rest of the plaster- 
work of the hall, I think there is no reason to doubt it. 
It shows that the conversion was accomplished durinr^ the 
ownership of the Grenvilles, and thus Eisdon's statement 
that Sir Eichard Grenville built a fair new house, which 
certainly he did not, is explained. There is no doubt, I 
■ think, that he destroyed the greater part of the monastic 
buildings, completed the house, and laid out the surroundin<r 
land in pleasure-grounds and gardens. ** 

47. Sir Francis Drake has left no traces of his possession 
of the abbey, but the old bowling-green is shown on the map 
of 1769. In the staircase is a portrait of Don Pedro de Valdez, 
one of the vice-admirals of the Spanish Armada, who was 
taken prisoner by Drake, and kept by him at Buckland Abbey 
until his friends had paid the round sum which Drake doubt- 
less required as his ransom ; although, as Speed says, " Sir 
Francis his souldiers had well paid themselves with the spoile 
of the shippe, wherein were 55,000 ducats in gold, which they 
shared merrily among them."* The rest of the officers and 
inen were detained in Plymouth for eighteen months until 
the ransoms arrived, and no doubt the Don spent the same 
length of time with his captor. His portrait shows him to 
have been every inch a Spanish cavalier— a noble figure, with 
handsome features, presenting a strange contrast to the portrait 
of Drake, whose appearance is the direct opposite in everv 
respect. ^ 

48. In one of the floors of the tower, the second, is a 
mantel-piece with the shield, crest, and motto of Sir Francis 
m plaster. On the left side or flank is a shield bearing tlie 
ancient arms of the Drakes— a wyvern displayed, quartered 
with the new grant of a fess-wavy between two polar stars. 
Below IS the date 1655 and the letters R. K Sir Francis 
Drake, the second baronet, the great nephew of the Sir 
Francis, whose portrait is also at Buckland Abbey, was at 
this time m possession of the estates, but I cannot explain 

• Barrow's Life of Brake, p. 131. The ship was the St. Frann,, a 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



25 



the meaning of the letters R N. On the right flank of the 
chimney-piece are two shields, the first apparently a bird 
naiant, and the second three mullets within as many in cres- 
cents 2 and 1, with an acorn as a crest. Dr. Drake has sug- 
gested to me that the former may be a canting coat — a duck 
or drake swimming upon water. The second shield is that of 
Gregorie,* of Plympton St. Mary. Elizabeth Gregorie married 
first John Elford, of Sheepstor, and secondly Thomas Drake, 
the brother and heir of Sir Francis. 

49. As every guide-book says, relics of the great navigator 
(these words seem indispensable) are to be found at the abbey. 
His drum (really there are two), and his Bible, sword, arid 
shield, the two latter, most unlike what he would probably 
have used, are to be seen. In the dining-room is the well- 
known portrait of Sir Francis, and in the staircase, besides 
those of Don Pedro de Valdez and the second baronet, are two 
other family portraits, and a painting, apparently an allegorical 
subject, supposed to refer to some incident in the history of 
the Drake family. The other portraits are those of Charles II, 
in armour, and his queen, and Nell Gwynne. 

50. The translations in the Appendix of some of the docu- 
ments relating to the abbey will be found of interest. The 
names of places have not much changed, and the boundaries 
of the properties can be approximately ascertained. 



DOCUMENTS. 

A. 

The following documents relating to Buckland Abbey will 
be found as under : — 

Carta Reg:i8 Edwardi Prirai. (Called "Edwardi Secundi" in 
Dugdale.) — Ibid; Dugdale, vol. v. p. 714; Oliver, p. 384. 

Carta fundationis per Amiciam Comitissam Devoni£e. Cart. 8 
Ed. I. n. 85. — Dugdale, vol. v. p. 712; Oliver, p. 382; trans. 
App. (C). 

Carta AmicisB Comitissae DevonisB, &c. — Ibid; Dugdale, vol. v. 
p. 714; Oliver, p. 384. 

Carta Walteri Exon Episcopi. — Reg. Exon. Epis., f. 96 ; Dug- 
dale, vol. V. p. 713; Oliver, p. 383; Oliver, Hist. Col., p. 71. 

Carta alia Walteri Episcopi. — Reg. Bronesc, f. 97 ; Dugdale, 
vol. V. p. 713; Oliver, p. 383; Oliver, fftst. Col.^ p. 72. 

Carta IsabellaB de Fortibus Comitissae Albemarlae. — Pat 9, 
Hen. IV. p. ii. m. 18; Dugdale, vol. v. p. 713; Oliver, p. 383. 

Do Libertatibus Abbatis de Bocland. — Oliver, p. 384. 

* Az. within three in crescents or, as many mullets ar. 



26 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



I 



De Damno facto abbati de Bocland per minerarios et custodes 
minerae regis. — Oliver, p. 385. 

Compositio inter abbatem et conventu de Bocland et abbatem et 
conventu de Ford de secta hominem de Tale ad hundredum de 
Hange. — Oliver, p. 385. 

Indulgentia pro adjuvantibus ad fabricum Ecclesi® Cathedralis 
JfciXomae consummandum. — Oliver, p. 386. 
• Taxatio et ordinatio vicariae de Walkhampton.—Oliver, p 386 

Conventio inter abbatem de Buclond et quendara Belworthi pro 
secta ad hundredum de Rowborough. — Oliver, p. 386. 

Ordinatio vicariae de Bickleigh et visitatio ibidem.— Oliver 
p. 387. * 

Appropriatio ecclesiae parochialis de Bannton, taxatio vicaria? 
Ibidem, et diversae facultates factae et concessa) per literas papales 
—Oliver, p. 388. f f - 

B. 

CONFIRMATION BY THE KING OF THE GIFT TO AMICIA. 

Edward, by the grace of God, King of England. Lord of 
Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaiue. To all to whom this 
writing shall come, greeting. Know ye that we have 
conceded and confirmed to Amicia, Countess of Devon the 
manor of Buckland, with the hamlets of Colunipton Walk- 
hampton, and Bickeley, together with all and sincrul'ar their 
appurtenances wheresoever situate ; To have and°to hold to 
the same Amicia, according to the form and tenor of the 
deeds which she had from the gift of Isabella de Fortibus 
Coimt^ss of Albemarle her daughter; And if it shall happen 
that the said Araicia should wish to give and to assign the 
said manor and hamlets with all their appurtenances whatso- 
ever to religious men, and with them to found a new reliaious 
house know ye that we for ourselves and for our heirs" will 
consider and accept that gift as acceptable, provided that the 
said house, after the decease of the said Amicia, shall be held 
f»f us and our heirs in capite. And we faithfully promise to 
confirmit, when founded or appointed, in pure and perpetual 
a ms. In witness &c. Witness myself at Odiham, 8th day 
ot August, m the 4th year of our reign. 

THE DEED OF FOUNDATION. 

In the name of the most glorious and undivided Trinity 

the Father the Son, and the Holy Ghost, Amen, and by the 

avour of the most Blessed Virgin Mary and of the Blessed 

l>enedict, we, Amicia Countess of Devon and Lady of the 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



27 



Isle, trusting in the goodness of the Supreme Maker of all 
good things, who disposes the wills of both men and '..omen 
at his pleasure, and faithfully directs them though unseen, 
and sustains our hope by the revelation of His mind 
if we offer anything in perpetual memory to the honour of 
His name; We found the Abbey, which we desire should 
be called or entitled St. Benedicts of Buckland, which is 
in our manor of Buckland, for the perpetual maintenance 
of abbots and monks of St. Benedict of the Cistercian 
order there to dwell, for the health of the souls of the Lord 
Henry, formerly King of England, the noble Queen Dame 
Eleanor his wife, and their children, of the Lord Edward, our 
illustrious King of England, the son of the same Henry, the 
noble Queen Dame Eleanor his wife, and the children of the 
same, and for the health of the souls of the T/)rd Gilbert of 
Clare, formerly Count of Gloucester and Hertford, our father, 
and the Countess Isabella, our mother, and the souls of 
Baldwin, Earl of Devon, our husband, and Isabella our 
daughter, Countess of Devon and Albemarle, and Margaret, 
our daughter, nun of Lacock, and for the souls of aU our 
ancestors and descendants, and of all to whom we are bound 
for any kindness, we set apart, and give, concede, and have 
assigned as an abode and abbey for the aforesaid abbots and 
monks, and we decree that abbots and monks of the aforesaid 
order shall dwell for ever in the same abbey. And to this 
abbey, to Brother Robert, the abbot, and for the support 
of the monks dwelling in the same house, which have been 
bought by us from Quarr Abbey, and to their successors, 
for ever in honour ot God and of the most Blessed Mary, 
Mother of God, and the Blessed Benedict ; we give and we 
grant the same our manor of Bocland, and our manors of 
Columpton, Bykeley, and Walkampton, with the advow- 
sons of the churches, and with the hundred of Rugheberewe, 
with all service, as well of free- tenants, villiens, as of others 
belonging to the said hundred, with all their appurtenances, 
as in demesnes and seigniories, military service, services of 
freed men, villeins and villanages, with their chattels suits, 
reliefs, aids, rents, heriots, heirships, escheats, aids of every 
kind, meadows, pasturages, pastures, ways, paths, woods, 
arable land, mills, waters, fisheries, moors, heaths, turbaries, 
together with all liberties and free customs acquired by us 
for the same abbey, with all other appurtenances, named and 
not named, which belong to the said manors and hundred, or 
which can in any way belong by w^hatever name they may be 
known, without any reservation by us, or by our heirs, and 



i 



f* 



28 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



we have confirmed the same by this present charter to the 
said abbot and convent and their successors, to be held in 
free and full alms for ever, freely, quietly, well and peaceably 
for ever, without any contradiction or impediment by us or 
our heirs. 

And we, the said Amicia and our heirs, will warrant, and 
acquit, and for ever defend the said abbot and convent and 
their successors to the manor, with the advowson of tlie 
churches and with the said hundred together with all liberties 
and free customs, and other appurtenances, named and not 
named, which to the said manor and the said hundred in 
any way belong or can belong in holy, pure, and perpetual 
alms, as aforesaid, against all Nations, whether Christians or 
Jews. And that this my gift, concession, and confirmation 
of this my present deed may remain firm and binding, we 
have caused this our seal to be placed unto this deed 
Witnesses Hugo Peverell, William of Bikells, Thomas of Pyn, 
Warren of Secchevill, Eeginald de Ferrars, Knights, John of 
Valletort, Richard Heavy, Ralph of Lenham, Stephen of 
Stoyll, Baldwin the Bastard, Humphrey of Donesterre, and 
others. 



iii 



I! 



D. 

DEED OF AMICIA COUNTESS OF DEVON. 

Know all men, now and to come, that we Amicia Countess 
of Devon and I^dy of the Isle [in our lawful widowhoodl 
with the thought of God and for the health of the souls of 
Lord Henry, formerly King of England, and the noble Queen 
D&me Eleanor, his wife and their children, and of the Lord 
Henry, formerly King of England, son of the same Kin<r 
Henry and the noble Queen Dame Eleanor, his wife and 
their children, and for the health of the souls of Lord 
Gilbert of Clare, formerly Earl of Gloucester and Hertford 
our father, and the Countess Isabella, our mother, and 
lialdwin. Earl of Devon, our husband, and for the health of 
our souls and the souls of Baldwin, our son, formerly Earl of 
Devon, and Isabella, our daughter. Countess of Devon and 
Albemarle, our daughter, nun of Lacock, and of all our ances- 
tors and successors, and of all to whom we are bound by any 
favours, and of others who do or shall bestow alms or any 
favours have given and granted, and confirm by this present 
writmg to God, and the Blessed Mary, and St. Benedict, and 
to Brother Robert and his convent taken from Quarr, and their 
successors of the Cistercian order in holy, free, pure, and per- 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



29 



petual alms, for building and perpetually supporting an 
abbey in honour of Mary, most blessed Mother of God, and 
the blessed Benedict, the manors of Buckland, Bickley, and 
Walkhampton according to their metes and bounds ; that is 
to say, from the Lobbapilla, on the western part of Bocland 
towards the north and east, through the middle of the water 
of Tavy, and from Walkhampton to the boundaries of Dart- 
moor, on the northern part of Mistor, and thence towards the 
south by the boundaries of the Verderers (regardorum) of 
Dartmoor, that is to say, by Mistorhead (Mistor panna), and 
by Hysfochres, and by Siwards Cross and Gyllesburgh and 
Plymciundla to the Plym, and thence by the Plym towards 
the west to Yaddabrook, and so by the bounds which sur- 
round Rydemore and Smalacumba, that is to say, by the old 
ditch to the angle of the ditch of Yllalonde, and thence by 
Hurtwallen to Smalacumbacrosse and Smalacumbalak, and 
by the water course of Meavy to Olyak, and by the ditch to 
the road which leads from Plympton to Schitestor, and so by 
the stone bounds to Biricombaford and by Crewecumba, and 
Denebrok, and [along] the course of the river Meavy to 
Schollaford, and so by the old boundaries to Yanedonecross, 
and thence by the bounds to Stoford and Lake and Churche- 
ford, and by the divisions between Elleford and Crosseton to 
Elfordlak and to the course of the river Meavy, and so to the 
place where the Meavy falls into the Plym, and along the 
Plym towards the divisions of Hescombe, and to the cross 
roads beyond Purpris, and thence by passing along the way 
which leads from Cadaworth bridge to Plympton through 
the land of the Schagh towards the east as far as Shitaburgh, 
and thence by old bound-stones to Haneketorr, and thence 
towards the west and north through the land of Famhill to 
Maynstonktown and Maynstoncross and Horingbrook and to 
Writewillak, and thence by a certain footpath to Pudehel, 
including Southpudehel, and so along the bounds towards 
the east to Horsford, and thence along the ancient metes to 
Writewille and Horyngbrok, and so to the Plym and to 
Wolewillebroke and to Wolewille Cross, and thence by the 
road which leads from Sutton to Tavistock at Copriscrosse, 
and thence towards the north along the ancient ditch to 
Bycacumbayoneda, and so along the ancient bounds to 
Lobbapilla. 

And the lands and villeins of Tor at Shitestorr, lying near 
to the manor of Bickleigh, with the appurtenances and with 
their villanages and chattels and belongings, and the hundred 
of Roborough, and with all profits thence arising with all 



f 



30 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



suits of freemen and bondmen, and with everything which 
belongs or may belong to the said hundred. 

We have also given, granted, and confirmed to the same 
abbot and convent and their successors the lands and villeins 
of Ton- at Schitestor, adjoining the manor of Buckeleye, with 
their chattel Is and suits. 

We also have given, granted, and confirmed, to the same 
abbey and convent and their successors the hundred of 
Roborough with all profits thence arising, with all suits of 
freemen and villains, and with all liberties, free customs, or 
whatever things belong to the hundred or can accrue or 
belong in any way to the same. 

We also have given, granted, and confirmed to the same abbot 
and convent and their successors the manor of Columpton, 
according to its bounds, that is to say, from Colump by the 
land of St. Nicholas of Exeter to Smalabrok, and by the 
outer bounds of the land of la Brok to the road which leads 
to Padokbrok, and thence by Lutteskeskell and Ponteford, 
and by the boundaries from Hillesdon to Burn, and by Linor 
and Sweton, and Morston and Burn to Culump, and so bv 
la Ny weloud to Rotherford Bridge, and a certain piece of land 
on the eastern part of that water near Kyngesmill, and thence 
by Stonweya, Crundla, Waterleta, Halstrewa, Westerhays, and 
Lattemere, to Cliff brigg, with the lands of Halsholte, anfl 
the meadows and woods of Swenham, and with the advowsons 
of the churches of Boclond, Walkampton, and Bykelie, with 
the chapel of Schitestorr, with all that to the same manor and 
lands, and to the same hundred belong, whether in suit of 
court, demesnes, seignories, knight's fees, homage, scutage, 
service of free men, &c., without any reservation by us or 
our heirs. To have and to hold freely of the lord the king 
and his heirs to the same abbey and convent, and their 
successors, the same manor and lands, with the advowsons 
of the churches of Boclond, Walkampton, and Byklie, and 
the chapels of Schitestorr, and with the aforesaid hundred, 
with all their appurtenances whatsoever in holy, free, pure, 
and perpetual alms, free, &c. These being witnesses, Sir Henry 
of Chaumbernon, Oliver de Denham, Hugo Peverell, &c. 

E. 

CHARTEK OF ISABELLA DE FORTIBUS WITH METES AND BOUNDS. 

To all the faithful in Christ to whom this present writing 
shall come, Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle and ' 
Devon and Lady of the Isle, health in the Lord; Know ye that 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



31 



we have granted and confirmed and by this present writing 
quit claim for ourselves and our heirs, to God and the 
monastery of the Blessed Mary and the Blessed Benedict of 
Buckland, and to the Abbot and Convent, and to their 
successors of the Cistercian order serving God in the same 
monastery, and to all those who shall hereafter serve him 
(there), all gifts and grants which the noble woman, our 
dearest mother Lady Amicia, formerly Countess of Devon 
and Lady of the Isle, obtained and gave to the same, namely, 
the manors of Boclond, Bykelie, and Walkampton, accord- 
ing to their metes and divisions, that is to say, from the 
Lobbapilla, on the western part of Bocland towards the 
north and east, throuj^h the middle of the water of Tavy, 
and from Walkhampton to the boundaries of Dartmoor, on 
the northern part of Mistor, and thence towards the south by 
the boundaries of the Verderers (regardorum) of Dartmoor, that 
is to say, by Mistorhead (Mistor panna), and by Hysfochres, 
and by Siwards Cross and Gyllesburgh and Plymcrundla 
to the Plym, and thence by the Plym towards the west to 
Yaddabrook, and so by the bounds which surround Rydemore 
and Smalacumba, that is to say, by the old ditch to the angle 
of the ditch of Yllalonde, and thence by Hurtwallen to 
Smalacumbacrosse and Smalacumbalak, and by the water 
course of Meavy to Olyak, and by the ditch to the road 
which leads from Plympton to Schitestorr, and so by the stone 
bounds to Biricombaford and by Crewecumba, and Denebrok, 
and [along] the course of the river Meavy to Schollaford, and 
so by the old boundaries to Yanedouecross, and thence by 
the bounds to Stoford and Lake and Churcheford, and by the 
divisions between Elleford and Crosseton to Elfordlak and to 
to the course of the river Meavy, and so to the place where 
the Meavy falls into the Plym, and along the Plym towards 
the divisions of Hescombe, and to the cross roads beyond 
Purpris, and thence by passing along the way which leads 
from Cadaworth bridge to Plympton through the land of 
the Schagh towards the east as far as Shitaburgh, and thence by 
old bound-stones to Haneketorr, and thence towards the west 
and north through the land of Farnhill to Maynstonktown 
and Maynstoncross and Horingbrook and to Writewillak, 
and thence by a certain footpath to Pudehel, including 
Southpudehel, and so along the bounds towards the east to 
Horsford, and thence along the antient metes to Write wille 
and Horyngbrok, and so to the Plym and to Wolewillebroke 
and to Wolewille Cross, and thence by the road which 
leads from Sutton to Tavistock at Copriscrosse, and thence 



32 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



M 



\ 



towards the north along the ancient ditch to Bycacnm- 
bayoneda, and so along the ancient bounds to Lobbapilla. 

And the lands and villeins of Tor at Shitestorr, lying near 
to the manor of Bykelie, with the appurtenances and with 
their villanages and chattels and belongings, and the hundred 
of Eoborough, and with all profits thence arising with all 
suits of freemen and bondmen, and with everything which 
belongs or may belong to the said hundred. 

And the manor of Columpton according to its bounds, that 
is to say from Colump by the land of St. Nicholas of Exeter 
to Smalabrok, and by the outer bounds of the land of la 
Brok to the road which leads to Padokbrok, and thence by 
Lutteskeskell and Ponteford, and by the boundaries from 
Hillesdon to Burn, and by Linor and Sweton, and Morston 
and Burn to Culump, and so by la Nywelond to Eotherford 
Bridge, and a certain piece of land on the eastern part of 
that water near Kyngesmill, and thence by Stonweya, 
Crundla, Waterleta, Halstrewa, Westerhayes, and Lattemere, 
to Clifbrigg, with the lands of Halsholte, and the meadows 
and woods of Swenham and their appurtenances. And the 
land of Lygh with its appurtenances in Sampford Spiny. 
And the advowsons of the churches of Bocland Walkampton 
and Bykelie with the Chapel of Scitestorr. And all things which 
belong to the aforesaid manors and lands, and to the aforesaid 
hundred whether in suits of courts, rights, seignories, military 
service, homage, scutage, services of freemen, bondmen, with 
their services, chattels and suits, wards, marriage rights, 
reliefs, aids, rents, heriots, and escheats of all kinds, with mea- 
dows, pastures, pasturages, ways, paths, woods, arable land, 
mills with their dams and tolls, dove cotes, waters, fisheries, 
fish ponds, alder beds, moors, wastes, heaths, turbaries, strays, 
waifs, together with all liberties and free customs, and all 
other things, and appurtenances named and not named, which 
belong to the said manor and land, and to the said hundred or 
which from them to us, or to our heirs may accrue without any 
reservation or demand; to have and to hold the aforesaid 
manors, lands, hundred and advowsons of churches, and the 
aforesaid chapel with all their liberties, possessions, and ap- 
purtenances, by whatever name known, of our lord the king 
and his heirs, to the aforesaid abbot and convent, and to their 
successors of the aforesaid order, freely, quietly, entirely, ab- 
solutely, well, and in peace, without any exaction or demand, 
actions, or hindrance from us or of our heirs, in free and pure 
alms for ever. 
And we the said Isabella will for ever acquit and defend 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



33 



to the said abbot and convent, and their successors, the said 
manors and lands, advowsons of churches, and the said chapel, 
and the aforesaid hundred with all their liberties, things, and 
appurtenances, named and not named, against all nations, 
Jews or Christians. In witness whereof we have affixed 
our seal to the present charter with these witnesses. Brother 
Kichard, prior of Christ Church, Twynham ; Brother Thomas, 
prior of Brommor; Sir Eichard, Fitz John, Eichard of Affeton; 
Hugo of Peverell ; Gilbert of Kuovile ; Eeginald of Ferrers 
Knights; Ealph of Lynham ; Stephen Stoil; William of 
Stapeldon; Simon of Travailesworth; William of Budekeside; 
Eobert of Coleford; and others. Given at Brommor, the 
Feast of St. Edmund, King and Martyr, 1291. 

F. 

AWARD OF THE PRIOR OF PLYMPTON AND JAMES CHUDLEIGH. 
THE PRIOR OF PLYMPTON, ETC. 

To all the faithful in Christ to whom the present letters 
indented shall come. We, William the Prior of Plympton 
and James Chudleigh, Esq., send greeting in the Lord ever- 
lasting. Wliereas divers suits and discords have been moved 
between William the Abbot of the House and Church of 
the blessed Mary of Bokelond of the one part, and James 
Derneford, Esq., of the other part, at length, by the interven- 
tion of friends between the parties aforesaid, peace hath been 
obtained in this manner ; viz., that the parties aforesaid have 
submitted themselves to stand our judgment, ordinance, and 
award in the premisses, whereupon the aforesaid abbot by 
his council hath declared to us that whereas he and his 
predecessors from time to time, to the contrary whereof the 
memory of man is not, have held, and of right ought to 
have, the hundred of Eoweborgh and a court of view of 
frankpledge, to be holden three times in the year at Eowe- 
borgh, and all which to view of frankpledge pertains, and also 
chatties of felons, fugitives, and escapes, of thieves, tumbrel, 
gallows, and pillory, with all the suit of free men and villeins', 
and with all liberties, free customs, or whatsoever things which 
to the hundred do pertain, or in any manner may accrue or 
pertain, as of the right of his church aforesaid. Nevertheless 
the aforesaid James Derneford hath caused to be set up a 
certain pillory and tumbrel at Estonhouse, and hath caused 
a certain court to be holden at Estonhous, within the pre- 
cinct of the hundred aforesaid, and there hath caused to be 
presented in his court aforesaid by his ministers the assize of 

F 



n f 



34 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



1: 



bread and ale there levied, and effusion of blood and of arms 
and injuries done against the peace, and other articles which 
ought to be presented in the view of frankpledge at the 
hundred aforesaid; and hath refused the bailiffs and ministers 
of the said abbot to levy amerciaments and distress at Eston- 
hous of himself and his tenants there, and hath caused such 
and so many injuries to them that they are greatly impeded 
about the business of the said abbot in exercising his office 
there, so that the same abbot hath lost the profit of his 
hundred aforesaid for five years past, which he ought to have 
received within the precinct of his visne of the manor of 
Estonhous aforesaid during the same time ; whereupon the 
aforesaid J. Derneford being summoned before us, the afore- 
said arbitrators says that he does not claim any right in the 
premises, or any parcel thereof, as against him is declared, 
nor hereafter intends to claim, but supposeth himself to be 
thereof not guilty. Therefore we the arbitrators taking upon 
ourselves the burthen of the arbitration, having heard the 
proofs thereof and mature deliberation thereupon had, do 
arbitrate, order, and adjudge on Thursday next after the 
feast of Saint Barnabas the apostle, in the 26*^ year of the reign 
of King Henry VI. at Boklond Monochorum, that the afore- 
said pillory and tumbrel and every of them, together with 
appurtenances and supports, before Thursday next coming, 
shall be deposed, destroyed, and removed, and thereafter not 
erected, nor the same or any other be there used by the afore- 
said James Derneford, his heirs, or assignes, or by any other 
by his procurement. Also we arbitrate, order, and adjudge 
that the aforesaid James Derneford and his heirs shall 
not hereafter hold any court with view to frankpledge at 
Estonhouse aforesaid, nor on any manner intromit himself, 
nor delay the said abbot and his successors concerning any 
articles which to view of frankpledge pertain, and he and his 
heirs shall permit the bailiffs and ministers of the said abbot 
and his successors at Estonhous aforesaid to collect, levy, 
and distrain the amerciaments, fines, executions, and other 
emoluments whatsoever which in the court of the hundred 
aforesaid so come, or in anywise hereafter may come, and 
to make summonses and executions, and also distresses and 
attachments there, and the distresses and attachments to 
there made to lead, drive, and carry away, and to retain in 
their custody without the contradiction, impediment, or distur- 
bance of the aforesaid James Derneford and his heirs, tenants, 
servants, ministers, or other whomsoever by his abatement or 
procurement in any manner. Also we arbitrate, order, and 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



35 



adjudge that the aforesaid James Derneford shall pay to the 
aforesaid abbot and his successors, before the feast of St. Michael 
the archangel next coming after the date of presents, £20 for his 
costs and expenses which he hath sustained against the said 
James Derneford by occasion of the disturbance of the ministers 
of the said abbot in exercising his office in Estonshous aforesaid, 
and by reason of the execution and levying of the pillory and 
tumbrel aforesaid to be paid in favor of the said abbot by our 
award. Also we arbitrate, order, and adjudge that the security 
of this our award may for ever remain secure and be unbroken 
and be also secured in law as by the advice and counsel of 
Henry Fortescue and Wm. Hyndeston before the feast of St. 
Michael the archangel next coming shall and may be desired. 
In witness whereof we the aforesaid prior and James Chudleigh 
to these indentures have set Qur seals, dated the day, year, and 
place above said, and hereupon the aforesaid Henry Fortescue 
and Wm. Hyndeston on Thursday in the feast of the behead- 
ing of St. John the Baptist, in the 26*^ year of the reign of 
King Henry VI., at Bokelond Monachorum, have advised and 
given council upon the award, order, and judgment aforesaid 
that the aforesaid abbot, or some one of his successors of the 
house and church aforesaid do, or ought to, prosecute against the 
aforesaid James Derneford, Esq., an action of trespass according 
as the law on that behalf demands and requires concerning 
the matters whereof the aforesaid award, order, and judgment 
are by the aforesaid arbitrators made and rendered. And the 
aforesaid James Derneford, in his proper person or by his 
attorney, in the same action ought to plead, have, and defend 
himself according to the advice and counsel of the aforesaid 
abbot or his successors, at the costs and expenses of the said 
abbot or his successors ; so that after judgment in the action 
aforesaid given, the damages, costs, and expenses by the said 
abbot or his successors recorded to the aforesaid James his 
attorney, be released, and in nowise levied. 



ti 






36 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



a 



LIST OF THE ABBOTS OF BUCKLAND. 



Name. 



1. Robert. 

2. William. 

3. Geoffry. 

4. Thomas. 

6. "William. 

6. Thomas Wappelegh. 

7. John Bryton. 

8. Walter. 

9. John. 

10. William RolflF. 

11. John Sporo. 

12. John Hylle. 

13. Thomas Olyver. 

14. John Brundon. 
16. Thomas Whyte. 
16. John Toker. 



Aathoritiei. 



Pleadings in Gyreband's complaint. 
Named in grant by Margaret de Ripariis. 
Rolls of Parliament. 

Proceedings in claim upon the Priory of 
Plympton. 

Agreement with Ralph de Bellworthy. 

Oliver. 

Oliver. 

Oliver. 

Lease to William Pomeroy and others. 

Proceedings against Demeford. Epis. Reg. 

Oliver. 

Episcopal Registers. 

Episcopal Registers. 

Oliver. 

Leases. Agreement with Derkeham. 

Episcopal Registers, &c. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



37 



PEDIGREE OF THE REDVERS FAMILY. 
Abridged from Oliver and Pitman Jones' Pedigrees of the Courtenay Families. 



Richard de Redvern 

1st Earl of Devon. 

Lord of Nehou. 

d. 1107. 



= Adeliza 



Baldwin 

2nd Earl. 

d. 4 June, 1155. 



Wi 



T 



= Adelieia William Robert Hadujisa 



aoM 



= William de Romara 
Earl of Lincoln. 



Richard 

3rd Earl. 

d. 1162. 



Dionisia 

daughter of 

Beginald 

Earl of 

OomwalL 



Henry 



I 

William 

de Verona. 

6th Earl. 

d. 10 Sept, 

1217. 



= Mabilia 
or Lucy. 



Matilda 
m. Ralph 
Aveneli ? 



Hadewisa 



Baldwin 

4th Earl. 

d.8.p. 



Alice Richard 

da. of 5th Earl 
Ralph d.s.p. 
deDol. 



Hmma Baldwin -■ 
da. of d. I Sept. 
Robert 1216 
dePonte- 
arches. 



Margaret 

d&. of 

Warren 

Fitzgerald 
m. 2nd 
Foulkes 

de Brent. 



Johanna 

or Jane. 

m. Wm. 

Lord 

Brewer the 

yr. d.8.p. 



Mary 
m. 1st 
Peter 

Des- 
preauz 
2nd Sir 
Robert 

de 
Cour- 
tenay, 

Knt 



Baldwin = 
7thEarL 
d. 1244-5. 



Amieia, eldest da. of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, by 
his Countess Isabella, m. 1240. 



Aviza 
1st wife. 



Baldwin 
8th EarL 

d. 
28 Aui 
1272 



f- 



Margaret Christian = William =Isabella de Redvers 
2nd wife. da. of deFortze, de Fortibus, Coun- 
d. 24 May, Allen Deforce, tess of Albemarle 

1292. Earl of ordeFor- and Devon, and 

Oalloway. tibus, Domina Insula, 

d.s.p. Earl of Survived her chil- 

1254. Albe- dren. d. 1292, when 

1st wife. marie. the estates (except 

d. June, the Isle of Wight, 
1260. claimed by the 

Crown) descended to 
Sir Hugh Courtenay, 
Knt., gt. -grandson 
of Mary, da. of 
Wm. de Redvers, 
6th Earl of Devon, 

and wife of Sir 

Robert Courtenay. 

2nd wife. 



r 

John 
d. an infant 



Margaret 
Nun of 
Lacock. 



I III 

Thomas William John Alice 



Edmund Plantagenet = Aveline 
Earl of Lancaster, m. 8 April, 
2nd son Henry III. 1270. 

2nd wife was Blanche d.s.p. 
Queen of Navarre. 1273. 



I.— DRAKE PEDIGREE. 

A ?*^^~7The earUer pedigree and the connection of Sir Franda Drake with the Drakeg of 
Aah IB bemg worked out by Dr. Drake.-^See Arch. Journ., voL ^J. 359 

John Drake of Otterton => 



Edmund Drakes 
3rd son 
Vicar of Up- 
church, Kent. 
Will proved 
16 Jan., 1566. 



John 



I 



1st wife 

m. 3 July, 1569 

d. bu. 25 

Jaa, 1582-3. 



Mary Newman = Francis = Elizabeth 
Drake Sydenham 
b. 1541 ! and wife 
knt.1581 da.&heiress 
d. 1595 of Sir Geo. 
8.p. Sydenham. 
Thomas mar. set. 
his dated 10 

brother Feb., 1584. 
inheritd. Siurd. Sir 
Francis, & 
afterwards 
wife of Sir 
Wm. Cour- 
tenay. 



John Edward, Joseph, John, Thomas = Elizabeth 

da. of 

Gregorie 

ofPlymp- 

ton St. 

Mary. 

Mamed 

first John 

Elford of 

Sheeps- 

tor,2ndly 

Thomas 

Drake 

d. 5 Mar. 

1631, b at 

Sheepstoi 



[Besides these Edmund Drake 
had four other sons.] 



Jane, da of 
Sir Amias 

Bampfylde, 

Knt., of 
Poltimore. 
Set. dated 

22 Sept. 1602. 

1st wife no 

surviving 

issue. 



Francis 
created 

Bart. 2 Aug. 

1622. M.P. 

for Devon. 

d. 11 Mar., 
1637. 



Joan, da. of 

Sir Wm. 

Strode, of 

Newnham. 

Post-nup. set. 

dated 17 Jan., 

1627. 2nd wife: 

survived, and 

afterwards married 

John Trefusis. 



Elizabeth = John Bamfield, Esq. 



Issue 



Francis = 
2ndBrt. 
M.P. for 
Devon, 
m. 1640. 
d. 6 Jan., 
' 1662. 
s.p. 
succeeded 
by nephew. 



Dorothy 

da. of John 

Pym, of 

Brymore, 

CO. Somer* 

set 



Thomas = 



Susan 
da.Wm. 
Crymes 

Set. 

dated 
21 July, 

1641. 



John : 

of Ivy. 

bridge. 



I 
William 
of Nether- 
ton. 



Joseph = 



T Sarah 
Johanna 



Dorothy, da. of = Anne,da.4co-h. = 



Sir John Bamp 
fvlde. Bart, of 
Poltimore. Ist 
wife. Postnup. 
set. dated 30 
Aug., 1673. 



of Thos. Boon, 

of Mt. Boon, CO. 

Devon. 2nd wife. 

Set. dated 

25 Oct, 1680. 



Francis, 
3rd Bart. 
M.P. for 

Tavistock. 



= Elizabeth, eldest da. of Sir Henry 
Pollexfen, Knt., of Nutwell Court 
Lord Chief Justice Com. Pleas 
Set dated 17 Feb., 1689. 3rd wife. 



Gertrude 



Henry 

PoUex- 
fen, of 
NutwcU 
Court 



Dorothy Frances 

[It is doubtful whe> 

ther these three 

daughters were the 

ehildren of the first 

or second wife.] 



Francis Henry 

4th Bart 
b. 
d. 26 Jan.. 
1799-40. 



Anne, da. of 
Samuel Heath- 
cote, Esq., of 
Hursley, Hants. 



r 



George, 2nd son = Sophia Bugden Henry ElLabeth 
. . ^. L 3rd8on. 

A son, who died unmarried, 
and two daughters. 



Thomas Martin, Gertrude 
Esq., one of the 
Welsh judges. 



Francis Henry 

5th Bart, 
b. 26 Aug. 1722 
d. 19 Feb. 1794 

when the 

estates passed 

to his nephew, 

the 2nd Lord 

Heathfield. 



Francis William = Elizabeth 

of Hillingdon, da. of 

CO. Middlesex. Sir Wm. 

Vice-adm. of the Heathcote, 

Bed. bapt 22 Bart. 

Aug., 1724. m. 1763. 

d. 

Two daughters. 



Francis Samuel 
Rpir-adm. m. 
1788. Created 
bart. 12 Aug., 
1782. d. 1789. 
8.p. 



Pooley da. 

Geo. Onslow, 

Esq,. 



Anne Pollexfen 



= Sir George Augustus Heathfield, created 
I Baron He .ihfii Id 6 July, 1787. 

I d. 1790. 



Francis Augustus Eliott 
2nd Lord Heathfield. d. 26 Jan., 
1813, and the title became ex- 
tinct. Succeeded to the Drake 
estates on the death of his uncle, 
Sir Francis Henry Drake, the 

4th Bart, 19 Feb., 1794. 



I 



Anne Eliott = 



John Trayton Fuller 

of Ashdown House, 

Sussex. 



Augustus Eliott Fuller 

b. 7 May, 1777. 

m. 1801. d. 1857. 

s. &h. 



Issue 



Clara, eld. 
da. & co-h. 
0. P. Mey- 

rick, of 
Bodorgan, 
Anglesea. 



Francis John Thomas Trayton = Eleanor 
Capt. 20th 3rd son. Assumed only da. 
Dragoons. surname and arms of Jas. 

d. uumarrd. of Eliott and Drake. Halford, 
2nd son. Created Bart. Esq., bf 

22 Aug., 1821, with Lale- 
rem. failure male ham, 

issue to his brothers Middle- 
WiUiam Stt^phen sex. d. 

and Rose-Henry. 18 Sept 

b. 8 Feb., 1785. 1841. 

m. 5 Aug.. 1819. 
d. 6 June, 1870. s.p. 

Succeeded by his 

nephew, the present 

Bat t. Became entd. 

under set. made by 

bir Francis Henry 

Drake, 5 Bart 



William Stephen Ilose-Henry=Margaretta Robert Fits!herbert=Ursula,da 



4th son. 

Capt R.N. 

d. 10 Sept., 1815. 

B.p. 



Capt R.N 
b. 1789. 

m. 1831. 
d. 1860. 
5th son. 



da. uf Sir 
Robert 

Shefiield, 
Bart 



In holy orders. 
6th son. 



of Sir 

Robert 

Sheffield, 

Bart. 



I I I I I 

1 Eliza=Jno Hamilton 

2 Sarah Maria 

3 Cordelia Eleano a 

4 Louisa 

5 Charlotte 



Issue 



r 



Francis George Augustus Fuller Eliott Drake 
b. 24 Dec., 1839. m. 1861. Succeeded his 
uncle as second Bart, new creation, 6 June, 
1870. Late Capt. Royal Horse Guards. Took 
by royal license, 3 Oct, 1870, additional sur- 
names and arms of Eliott and Drake. 



Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert 
Doughu^, Bart, of Glenbervie. 



Jane Eliza Anne Pollexfen 
eld. da. m. 3 April, 1866. 



Rev. Robert Briscoe, 

D.D., Rector of 

Nutfield, Surre> . 



I 



Eleanor Halford 

m. 7 Aug., 1856. 

d. 21 Oct., 1858. 

s.p. 2nd. da. 



Charles Eales 
Esq., of East- 
don, Devon. 



Son bom 
15 Oct, 1867. 



Son bom 3rd Nov., 1871. 
d. 1873. 



I 
Elizabeth Beatrice. 



40 



THE CISTEKCIAH HOUSES OF DEVON. 



upper 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

I. • Plan from Aislabie's map of the estate, hanging in the 
corridor at Buckland Abbey, referred to par. 37. 
b Ground-plan of the remains of the Church (approximate). 
a and b Door-ways in the Turret of the building (plate VI.), de- 
scribed in par. 40. 
e The Abbey Church from the Perambulation Map, slightly enlarged, 
par. 37. See also Transactions Devonshire Association, vol. v. 
p. 512. 
e Capitals of columns. 
IV. Western Arch of Tower, showing springer of the Vaulting shafts. 
V. a Boss Head of the Countess Amice (?) par. 43. 
b and e Corbels in Transept. 
VI. West elevation of building referred to in par. 40. 
VII. Seals and Arms of the Abbey, described par. 27. 
VIII. Plaster Chimney-piece in the second floor of the Tower, with the 
arms of Sir Francis Drake, granted him 20 June, 1581, and 
the double motto. On the flanks, are the shields mentioned in 
par. 50. 



II. 



III. 



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CD 
OQ 
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CO 




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(3 




tc 




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BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



Plajf/>y 2 




2FT 31"? 



- -* 



DOOR- WAY LEADING 
TO TURRET. 



DOOR-WAY IN ROOM 
IN TURRET. 






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BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



JYato 




BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



Tl/xjhf!/ 6 




hi 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



Tlaix/ 7. 




11 








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Hi 



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BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



FlcUe^ 8. 




THK 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON 



n. 



BUCKLAND— Concluded. 



:ti 



i\ 



THE 



CISTEECIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



{ 



BucKLAND. — Concluded. 



Ill 



|-!'f 



51 . In my search for documents connected with Buckfast 
, Abbey, I have met with a few relating to Buckland, which 

may as well be given, with a few additional quotations and 
notes, as a supplement to my former paper. 

52. First as to the Abbey of Quarr, Quarrera, or Quar- 
reria, in the Isle of Wight, from which Buckland was colon- 
ised, see par. 17. The pedigree of Buckland was as under : — 

Savigny, 

Quarr, 



Buckland. 
Quarr in the oldest deeds is called Quarraria, probably from the 
neighbouring stone-quarries. It was one of the first monas- 
teries of the Cistercian order founded in England, and was, 
as I have before shown, begun by Baldwin, Earl of Devon, 
who, in the 32nd year of the reign of Henry I. gave the 
Manor of Arreton to GeofFry, Abbot of Savigny, for its 
building. The earliest charter now remaining is that of 
Engler de Bohun, who bestowed Haseley upon the monks, 
probably soon after Baldwin's donation. This deed was 
executed in Normandy and witnessed by Serlo, Abbot Geof- 
fry's successor, and otiier Norman Bishops and Abbots. This, 
with other benefactions to the abbey, was confirmed by Richard 
son of Baldwin, whose deed without date must have been 
executed in the reign of Henry II. Most of the lands of the 
abbey appear to have been given in the reign of Stephen. 
There is also a grant from Henry, Duke of Normandy, of a 
place called Locwelle, in Normandy, for the monks of Quarr 
to build an abbey there, and a grant of confirmation from the 

G 



; f 



y 



i 
f 



H 

?; 



h 



42 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



li| 



same Henry as King of England. This, Sir Richard Worsley 
conjectures to have been an act of gratitude in Henry to 
Earl Baldwin for espousing the cause of Matilda. Among 
the persons of consequence known to have been buried here 
are Earl Baldwin the founder, Adeliza his countess, and their 
son Henry. William de Vernun bequeathed £300 for the 
erection of a tomb here for himself and his father ; the chapel 
also contained a monument to the Lady Cicely, second 
daughter of King Edward IV. (See Dugdale^a Monasticon, 
IJist. Isle of Wiffht, p. 177, note.) 

53. In the foundation deed of Amicia Countess of Devon 
mention is made of her daughter Margaret, described as 
a nun of Lacock. Lacock Abbey was in \Viltshire, founded 
in 1232 by Ella daughter of William Earl of Salisbury and 
widow of William Longspee, a natural son of Henry ll. by 
fair Rosamond, and, in right of his wife. Earl of Salisbury. To 
this abbey Amicia gave the manor of Shorewell in the Isle of 
Wight, and also her heart. In all probability the body of 
Amicia was buried at Buckland, and her heart certainly was 
at Lacock. Her obit was kept at the latter place, on the Feast 
of St. Andrew, down to the Dissolution, and in the Valor is 
an entry : — " To money distributed to the poor on the feast 
of St. Andrew the Apostle for the soul of Amicia Countess of 
Devon, four bushels of corn worth 2s. 8d., and on the eve and 
day of that feast to three poor persons in bread drink and 
meat to each of them daily 2d. worth. 3s. 8d." 
• 54. Of the documents, the first is from the Roll, Placita de 
Quo W^aranto, Edw. I., whereby it appears that Amicia was 
called upon to show by what auuiority she held the hundreds 
of Wonford, Tiverton, Harrige, Roborough, and Axminster, 
and view of frankpledge, &c. in Tiverton, Collumpton, and 
Exminster, without licence, &c. 

Amica Comitissa Devon' sum' fuit ad respond' dno Regi de 
ptito quo war'to tenet hundra de Wonford Tyverton Har- 
rigg' Rubergg & Axemenistre que ad Coronam dni Regis 
ptinent, Et quo waranto dam' lire visum francipleg' furcas 
emendas assis' panis & c'vis fracte in Tyverton, Colump- 
ton' & ExEMiNiSTRE sine licentia, &c. 

Et Amicia p' attor' suu venit, Et dicit qd non debet dfio 
Regi ad hoc bre responde quia dicit qd non tenet integre 
pdca hundra eo qd Abbas de Bocland tenet inde hundra 
de Harrigg & Rubergg' et petit judm de bri. 

Et Will's de Gyselh»m qui sequif pdfio Rege dicit qd 
licet Jdcus Abbas tencat pdca hundra pdcta Amicia tenetur 



*. — . y» 







BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



43 



I 

I 



responde diio Regi de tenancia suo quo ad alia hundra et 
nisi inde respondeat petit judiciu de ip'a tanq^m de indefensa. 
Dies dat' est ei coram diio R'a die Pasch in unu mensem 
ubicumq' &c. de audo judo suo &c. — Rot. 37. (Placita de 
Quo Waranto Edw. L Ed: Rec. Com. fol 1818, p. 168.) 

55. The next is from the Assize Roll, 1281 : Robert of At Exeter, 
Buckland, who was the first abbot, is charged with unjustly 1^''*^^® ®^ ^*- 
dispossessing the Prior of Plympton of certain land : — " Eihvard i' 



§ Assisa venit recogn si Robs Abbas eccie sci Benedci de 
Boclaund fra? Rog'us Iverlesboclond Wills le Fores? Thorn 
de Wythye Gilbs le Brewer Witts de Wyrk^m Wal?us de 
Eckeworth Robtus Gosce Rics de Crewet Witts de Elleswitt 
Rog'us de Fylech^m Rogus Semer Walrus le Provost Witts 
Russet Robs de Alwistoii Rog'us Upperig' Witts le Knyht Rics 
de Legh Ro^us Orig' Gilbs de la Bure Thom de Colewitt 
Thorn le Fotur Gilbs de Crewile Witts Altwy Wal?us 
Uppehutt Ricus Bulymer Walterus Webbe Witts le Pyl 
Galfrs Aylmer Edwardiis de Uptoii Petr de Wobhutt Robs 
de la Yo Gilbs le Rede Robs de la Hole Ricus Berey Rog'us 
Lond Godief 'rs de Bikecumb et Rog'us de Hamme injuste &c. 
disseis Priore de Plumptoii de libo ten suo in Plympton post 
pm %, Et unde quer' qd diss eum de quinq'ginta acr ?re 
cum ptin. Et Prior ven et re' se de bri suo Ido pdcus Abbas et 
alii inde sine die Et Prior et pi sui de p§ in mia scitt Galfrs 
le Frere et G'vaS de Crymel Postea covenit int eos qd pdcs 
Abbas cogn pdcas quinqginta acr tre cu ptiii in Hetfeld 
juxa Pudele ee jus pdci Prioris et eccie sue de Plympton et 
illas ei redd tenend pdco !Priori et succ suis imppet Et p hac 
*?c. pdcs Prior cocessit qd tenetes ipius Abbis in Pudet heant 
communa in eisdem teri tempo apto ad omnimoda a9ia etc. 
(Assize RoU, M. 1, 34.— 1 Memb' 29d.) 

56. The next is from the De Banco Roll, William charging 
Thomas the Abbot, and Brother John Bryton, monk of the 
abbey, and John Spenser, with breaking into the house of 
the said William at Collumpton and carrying off goods and 
chattels to the value of £10. The defendants did not appear, 
and we do not know tlie result 

Will's Couta p at? suii op' se iiij^ die vsus Thoma Abbem 
de Boklond et frem Joliem Brytoii comonacu eiusde Abbis et 
Johem Spenser de ptito quare vi et armis domu ipius Witti 
apud Colomptoii fregunt et bona et ca? sua ad Valencia dece 

g2 



A.D. 1281. 



J 



1) , 



a 



Fnr la maison 
de Bocklond. 
(fo.eib.) 



AA 

MM, 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



16 


2 8 


16 


2 8 


6 


10 8 


9 


15 4 




13 4 



libra^ ibidm invent cepunt et asptavunt et alia enormia ei 
intulerunt ad g*ve dampnii ipius Wilti et cont"^ pace Reg etc. 
Et ipe non ven Et tiuer inde die vsq) ad hunc die scitt a die 
Pasche in tres septiasp esson suu postqam attach etc. I'o prec 
est vie qd distr eos p omes ?r etc. Et qd de exi! etc. Et qd 
habet corpa eox hie a die sci Michis in xv dies etc. (De 
Banco RoU. Eist, 38 Edward III.) 

57. In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, 1291, we find some 
of the Abbey property mentioned : — 

Abbas de Bokland) Bokland q'd tax' . 
h't Man'ria de ) Bikeley q'd tax' . 

Walhampton & in Derte- 

more, q'd tax' . 
Colompton q'd tax' 
Item apud Bikecumbe q'd tax' 
S'm"- . . . . 39 13 .5 
Dec"" . . . . 3 19 4J 

(Pp. 146-153.) 

There are also two or three other scattered references. 

58. The next, in Norman-French, from the White Book 
of Tenures in Cornwall, is a direction, that in consequence 
of the poverty of the Abbey it should be relieved from the 
payment of charges connected with the Forest of Dart- 
moor : — 

Comewaille. ffev*er Mar). Ian Dengt xxx E. etc. A nre 
ch vadlet Robt de Eleford iire sen de Corn et DeveneS saluj. 
Porceq3 no^ avons entenduz q la poure maison de iire dame 
de Bokland est durement mult aninentie p la charge et 3venue 
des fores?s de iire foreste de Dertemore Sur quei no^ 
desirrant3 la relevacion de la dite maison Vous maundons 

3~ vous meismes 3veie5 q ele ne soit chargee ou grevee p' les 
it3 forests ou auts autrement q ele ne doit estre de reson, 
et ne soeffrez q labbe de la dite maison ou ses gent) et tenant) 
soient empesche) ou endamage) p les dit) forests autrement 
q nad estee vsee einz ces heures ou q ils deyvent estre de 
bon foi. Don etc. a loads le xiij iour de fFe9er Ian etc. p I 
levesq) de Wync. 

Wliite Book of Tenures in Cornwall — 25-39 Edw. III. 

59. The last document is a complete copy of the Ministers' 
accounts, 31-32 Henry VIIL, so far as they relate to Buck- 
land, carefully transcribed from the original. It gives foil 
details as to the property of the abbey at the time, the 
rental, and the names of the various tenants. 



; 




BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



m 



BucKLAND Abbey, co. Devon. 

Comp'a OTm et singulox Balliuoi Spo§ Coft firmar et at^^P'^o^as**"^' 
Ministro^ Computabit Oim et Singlo^ Diiio^ MaSio^ Terr et '^«B««'^«^*"''«- 
ten? Rector pencofi et porcofi quaicumq^ tam Spuat qam 
Tempat Diii Regf Deo nup Moii ptinen sive spectan viz. a 
ffesto sci Michis Archi Anno Regni Henr viij" Dei gra Angi 
et ffraunc Rf fidei Defeng Diii hibn ac in terr supmi Capitf 
Ecctie Angt xxxj°*° vsq) idm fsm sci Michis Archi Anno 
eiusdm Dni Rf extunc pxiih sequeii scit p vnii annu Integr 
put inferius pt. 

CoMP'us Georgii Pollerde firmar. ibm p tempus Scit' d'ci nup' Mon' cu terr 

~j-j^ ^•' -P r D'nical' eid'm p'tinen'. 

Null: put ill pede vltimi Compi Anni px pcedeii plenius Arrerag. 
conf. 

Sm"-— nutt. 

Sed r de — xxiij li. iij s. v d. de firm Scit ibm cu Orf pomar ffi>*™'- 
Gardiii terr prat pasc & pastur voc Calses pke Barne pke 
Dedeh"'m Quarry pke cu duob) pvis pra? eidm Annex le 
Conyger Wyndemyll pke long pke cii 1 pvo pra? adiac Long- 
land Vyntens Oxenh"^m Southefelde Penmlshe pke Ookewell 
Higher Byckh*'m Lower Byckeh^'m Haylebdle Longpke 
Ruggemyit pke Cansey mede & Shepewaysshe cu § ptiii eidm 
scit ptifi sive spectan sic dim pfato Compu*' p tmio xxj Annox 
p Inden Diii Rf sub Sigitt Cur Augmeri Reven coron § ut 
asSif sot ad festa Anniic bte Marie virginis & §ci Michis 
Archi equatr viz. p ij hmoi festis infra temp^ hui^ Compi 
accideri ut supra. 

Sm**" — ^xxiij li. iij s. v d. 

Sm"" Toflis firm pdce — xxiij li. iij s. v d. q libavit Thome 
Arundell Mili? Rec Dni Rf ibm de exi? firme pdce huius 
Anni sine billa sed tm ex Recognicicon sua sup hunc compm. 

CoMP'us Robti Toker Bait ibm p tempus pdcm. Man'in de 

Nuit put in pede vltimi Compi Anni px pceden plenius Colompton co 

_,r cert' terr' m 

Sm — nuft. Arrerag.' 



I 



Sed r de — ciiij 3. vj d. de toto Redd liboi Tenen ibm p Redd' lib'o' 
Annu sot ad ftn §ci Michis Arch Im put p Compm de Anno Tenen'. 
px pceden sup hunc Compm exeun?. 

Sm^~ciiij s. vj d. 



V 



..?> 




46 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Redd' Cast' 
Tenen'. 



Et de — Ivj li. vij s. xj cl. de toto Redd Custum Tenen ibm p 
Annu cu xvj s. vj d. re in? Tenen ifem p quodm redd voc le) 
guldage rent p Annu sot ad iiij**' Anni ?mios principat equis 
porcioii put in Compo de Anno pX pcedeii ad larg annota? 



pleni^ conf^. 



Sm"' — Ivj li. xij 3. xj d. 



I 



I 



51 



Terr' in Exoi!. Et de — xxvj s. viij d. de Redd 1 Ten infra Civitat Exon in 
tenur Joh'^nne Chubbe vid p Annu sot ad ?mio8 ^dcos. 

Sm"" — xxvj 8. viij d. 

p'quis'Cur'. Etde— X8. ixd de pquis cur ifem hoc Anno ten? put p 
Rotlas ea^dm sup hunc Compm ostens et examia? ultra 
xlj s. v d. de divs Arriciam illevabit et pdonat rone Ac? pliam 
de geSali pdonac Dili Rf inde edi? et pvi§. 

Sm"" — X 8. ix d. 
Sm"" To?lis Re?. — Ixiij 1. xiiij s. xd. 

D quib). 

ffeod' et vad'. I^m compu? in feod sive vad sui ipius compu* Baft ifem ad 
Ixvj s. viij d. p Annu sic sibi conccsS ac Wiltmo & Hugoii 
fit g p tmlo vite eo^ p tras patefi Da? sub sigillo nup conven- 
tuat ibm xx™° die fFebruarij Anno rr Henrici viij"^ xxv*° sot 
ad fes? Annuo bte Marie virginis & Sci Michis Archi equis 
porciofi put in eisdm tris paten pleni^ cont"^ viz. in Altone 
flmoi virtute trar^ pdic? p hoc anno — Ixvj s. viij d. Et in 
feod Johis^Edmond Decennar ManSij pdci ad xxs. p annii 
sic sibi Silit ConcesS p tmio vite § p tras paten nup Abbis 1 
convent ibm da? xx™° die Aprit Anno xxix^o Rf pdci sot ad 
fm §ci Michis Archi ?m viz in Aitone hmoi virtute easdra 
trar^ pateil p hoc anno — xx s. Et in feod Anthonij Harvye 
subseii Manlij pdci Ac Mafiij de Bauntoii ad xxvj s. viij d. p 
Annu sic sibi concesS p tmio vite 5 p tras patefi dci nup prior 
& conven? da? vj*« die Octohr anno xxx™" Dni Rf pdci sot ad 
fes? pdcm viz. in Altone hmoi Virtute trax pdca^ p hoc anno 
xxvjs. viijd. Et in Stipend ctici Auditor scriben hunc 
compm put Cticis Audi? Dn Rf Ducat § lancastr Allocar 
Cons viz. in Aitone hmoi put Alloc est in Annis pceden — ij s. 

Sm"" — cxv 8. iiij d. 



Expen' Sen'. 



hi;'? 



Et in Experi Sent Ctici Cur & At Officiar ibm existefi p 
cur supMic? hoc anno tenend put p Rotut eaidm sup hunc 
compm osteng & examia? — xx s. ij d. 

Sm*"— XX 8. ij d. 



h 



BUCKLAND ABBE¥. 



47 



Et in Denar p dcm comp*n? liba? Thome \ • Lib'ac' denar' 

Arundell Mili? Recep? Diii Rf ibm de exi? ( i • i j 

offic § huius Anni sine biit sed ?m ex j ^ ' ' 

Recognic § sup hunc compm . . . ) r' Rec'. 

Sm"~ Alloc et libac pdic? — Ixiij. li xiiij s. x d. 
Que quidm Sm"" correspondet sume To?lis Re* Bdce. 

Et sic Eq^. 

Comp'tts Wftl?i Lano-Pfiforde Baft ^"cklond' Man'iu cu' hundred' de Row burgh 
KjOMP us W aitl Ijangesiorae nm jj^^j^ Walkch-mpton Shittistor& Rynmore cu 

ibm p tempus pdcm. ^ cert' terr' in Saulteaysshe. 

Nult. put in pede vltimi compi Anni px pcedeii pleni^ Arrerag'. 
cont"^. 

Sm"' — nuit. 

Sed r de — lix 1. xij s. xj d. ob de toto Redd t^m liboi q^m Redd' Assis'^ 
custum Tenen ibm p Annu sot ad iiij **^ Anni tnios principat ^° Bucklond'. 
equis pore put in compo de Anno px pceden ad larg Annota? 
pleni^ cont'. 

Sm"" — lix 1. xij 8. xj d. ob. 

Et de — viij 1. de Redd AssiS in Hayle cii xx" de Redd Rowimrgh sc 
cuiusdm Coie de Rowburgh pdca sot ad tmios pdict put p ^*y^®- 
dcm compm de Anno px pcedeii. 

Sm"-— viij 1. 

Et de xxj 1. xiiij s. viij d. ob de Redd Assig Custum Teneri Walkeh'm- 
cii iiijs. jd. ob. de Redd Guldag ibm p Annu put p3 p compm *^^'- 
pdcm. 

Sm"^ — xxj 1. xiij s. viij d. ob. 

Et de Ixij 8. xj d. de toto Redd Assis Tenen ibm p Annu Shittistor & 
sot ut sup put p3 p comp pdcm. ^ Rynmore. 

Sm"^ — Ixij s. xj d. 

Et de viij s. de Redd j Ten ibm p Annu sot ut sup p3 p Salteaysshe. 
compm pdcm. 

Bm — V11J8. 

Etde — xxiiijs. ixd. de pquig cur ibm hoc Anno ten? cu P'quis* cur', 
xxj 8. de quod"m redd voc fieasure wheighte & watche sot p 
xiiij" decennar ibm ex Antiq cong put p3 Rotut ea^d sup 
hunc Compm osteng & examia? ultra xlviij s. iiij d. de divg 
AnJciam illevabit & pdona? rone Ac? pliam de gefiali pdonac 
Dni Rf inde edi? & pvig. 

Sm"" — xxiiij s. ix d. 
Sm'" To?lis Re?— iiij « xiiij 1. ij s. iiij d. 

D quib3. 



i .. 



* II 






•I 

i'li 






THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



ffeod' & vad' 
cu Expeii' 



Idm Comput in feod sive Begard sui ipius Compu^« Bait ibm 
ad xl 8. p Aiinu sic sibi concesS p ?mio vite § p tras paten dal 
sub Sigitt pup Conventuat ibm xxyj*** die Aprit Anno rrf 
Henric viij xxx"** sot ad fm sci Mictlis Arctli tm put in eisdm 
tris paten ad larg rro* pleni^ Apparet viz. in Attone tlmoi 
Virtute tra^ pdict p hoc Anno — xl s. 

Et in Stipend Ctici Auditor scriben hunc compm put Alloc 
est in Ann pceden— ij s. 

Et in Expen Sen* Ctic Cur & at Officiar ibm existen p cur 
supMic? hoc anno tenend put p3 Rotut ea^dm sup hunc compm 
ostenS & examial — iiij s. iij d. 

Sm"" — xlvj 8. iij d. 

Decas' Redd'. Et in defec? Redd j Teii in Salteaysshe sup oSat in titlo 
p se ad viijs. p. Annu & duo^ Ten nup m te* Johis v" 
Holdm* & Johis Broke iiij s. xj d. supius o8a? in titlo redd 

3ic dimisa* p' Assis MaSij pdci infra Sumam Iviij 1. xiiij s. x d. ob ad 

discrec' Audi- j^ g. xj d. p annu. Et qd did Ten totlr in decaS sunt & exis? 

tor&Recept'. ^ '' . ^ ,,.9 , „ x ,- . s i. -s "-• ~ i* • 

vac ac m nuili te° p totu temp*^ hui compi ex sacro aci 

compute vi). in defect hmoi Redd p temp^ pdcm xvij s. xj d. 

Sm"' — xvij s. xj d. 

lib'ac' Denar' Et in denar p Compntf libat Thome \ 

Arundell Milit Rec Dni Rf ibm de j .... 
r' Rec'. ©xit officij S huius Anni sine biit sed j •' 

tm ex Recognic s sup hunc Compm ) 

Sm"" Alloc et libac ^dict — iiij" xij li. ix s. vj d. 



xl. vs. iiij d. [?] 



Et debt xxxij s. x d. q Alio"" ei ut de to? Den p ipm soluf 
p dv}§ Repac fac? & impoi? sup Div's Ten & Cotag infra 
MaSiu pdcm hoc Anno maxie RuinoS ut in empcion Tegut 
find Clav Calc & areri ac at ad hec neccssar put p bitt de 
pticlis inde sup hunc compm osteng & examla?. 

Et E(]^ 

Byckeleigh& Shagh p'cell'ManMj ^ CoMP'us Jollis Stephyii Batti bm p tempus 

de Buckland' p'dict' , pdcm. 

Arrerag. Nutt put in pede Vltimi Compi Anni px pceden pleni^ 

contf^. 

Sm*^ — nutt. 



u: 









Redd' Assis'. 



Sed r de xxiiij 1. iiij s. vij d. de toto Redd t*m libo^ q*m 
CustumTenenc ibm p Annii sot ad iiij"*" Anni ?mlos principat 
equis pore put in Compo de Amio px pcedeii ad larg Annota? 
plenius cont'. 

Sm — xxnij h. iiij s. vij d. 



r«.. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



49 



Et de iiij l vi s. viij d. de firm j Molend ibm p Annu sic ffirm' Mojend 
dim Thome Boreman i Inden ut Ass^if sot ad festa pdca ut ^^ Byckeleigh 
m in Compo de Anno px pceden. 

Sm — iiij 1. VJ s. vnj d. 

Et de xxvij s. vij d. de pquis xiij''^ cur ibm hoc anno tent P'qnis' Cur', 
cu ix« de hie!t vij s. vd. de Redd cen§ 1 xjs.ijd.de At 
pquig put p3 Rotut eaxdm sup hunc compm ostenS t examia? 
ult"' xxixs. vd. de div^g AiSciafh illevabit *? pdonat rone Ac! 
pliam de geSali pdonac Dni RegC inde edil % pvig. 

Sm"' — xxvij s. vij d. 

Sm"" Totlis Re* — xxix li. xviij s. x d. 

I> quib}. 

Idm Compu! in feod sive Regard sui iplus compu* Batt ^^od' k Vad'. 
01m & singles Dniox Maflio^ Terr & Ten cu ofiiib^ eo^ Mem- 
bris in Byckleigh Abbottesrowe & Shagh ac vig fr«unc pleg 
Mafiij de Buckelond voc Holme BalifF ad xxvj s. viijd. p 
Annu sic sibi concesg p tmlo vite g p tras paten da? sub 
Sigillo nup conventuat ibm ix^o die Aprit Anno rrf Hennci 
viij vi xxx™° sot ad f 'm gci Michis Archi tantu put in eisdem 
tris paten ad larg rro* pleni^ liquet viz. in Attone hmoi vir- 
tute trax pdic? p tempus huius compi— xxvj s. viij d. Et in 
feod sive Regard cuiusd^m Simon Lawry Decennar 01m & 
singlox Dnioi sive MaSio^ Bdict ad vj s. viij d. p Annu viz. 
in Attone hmoi caug eScic officg huius Anni put Alloc est m 
Ann pcederi— vj s. viij d. Et in Stipend Ctici Auditor scriben 
hunc compm put Alloc est in Ann pceden — ij s. 

Sm — XXXV s. iiij a. 

Et in Denar p dcm compu*^ solu? p expen sen* Ctici Cur & Expen' Sen''. 
At Offiiciar ibm existen ad Cur supMic! hoc Anno tenend 
put p3 Rotut eaidm sup hunc compm osteng & examia! — 

xlj s. j d. 

Sm"" — xlj s. j d. 

Et in Denar p dcm compu* libat Thome 
Arundell Mili'f Rec Dni Rf ibm de exi? 
ofiic sui huius Anni sine bitt sed tm ex 



■i ;• 



',;!"t 



lib'ac' Denar'. 



xxiiij 1. xix s. iiij d. 



Recognic g sup hunc compm ^ 

Sm"" Allocae et libac pdic?— xxviij 1. xv s. ix d. 

Et Debt— xxiij s. j d. q Alio' ei ut de to? deii p nov fcur» 
j pinfald Dni Regf ibm p Salv Custod Catalt p dco Diio 
Rege district in eodm pinfald ponend hoc Anno sine bitt sed 
?m ex sacro dci compu*® ^t Eq,. 



r*Rec'. 



■*«■ 






'TtHp^ 



50 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKLAND ABBEY. 



61 






% 



Buckelonde 

Rector'. 

Arrerag'. 



ffinn' Rector'. 



CoMP'us Robti looker firmar ifem p tempus pdcm. 
Idm o' de — ^xviij li. de arr vltimi compi Anni px pceden 
put ibm pleni^ cont'. 

Sed r de— xviij 1. de firm oim Decim Garb Ree? Jdic? 
cu Omib3 At Comod eidm ptin sic dim pfa? Compu* Wittrao 
& Hugori fii S de quinquen in quinquennm durari tmio Ix Ann 
p Indefi Dat quinto Die Octobr Anno rrf Henrici viij^ xxyij"*^ 
sot ad fm §ci Andree fm put in eadm Inden ad larg irro* 

plenius cont"^. 

Sm*" — ^xviijl. 

r' Rec*. Sm"" ToHis ffirme pdic? cfi Arr— xxxvj li. De qib} libavit 
Thome Arundell Mili! Rec Dni Rf ibm de exi? firm § pdic! 
hoc Anno sine biit sed !m ex Recognic § sup hunc Commn— 
xviij 1. Et debt^xviij U Totu. 

Sup'. Ipm Compu** de Axr firin S buius Anni eo qd tiet Die 

Soluc inde uxsq^ fm Sci Andree px futur post ClauS hui^ 
Compi put p Lideii dci firmar .... xviij 1. 

Rect de Walkh.mton & ^ CoMP'us dci Robti Tooker firmar ibm p tempus 

Shittistor'. pdcm. , A ~ TTU- . n - A • - 

Arrerag,. Wm o' de — vij 1. X8, de Arr Vltimi Compi Anni px 

pceden pleni^ cent'. 

Sm""— P3. 

Sed y de — vij 1. X 8. de firm decim Garb eiusdm Rector ac 
de iij'"" Teri in Byckleigh cu omib} at Comodi? eidm Rector 
ptin Sic diin pfa? Compi Wiftmo & Hugoii fit § p ?mio Ix 
Annos p Indefi supius in Compo px pcedeii specific sot ad fm. 
§ci Andree pdict put p Indeii pdict 

Sm"^ — vijl. X8. 

Sm"' Toflis fiirme pdic!— xvli. q libavit Thome Arundell 
Mili! Rec Diii Rf ibm de exi? firm pdict hoc Anno sine bitt 
sed !m ex Recognic 9 sup hunc Compm — vij li. x s. 

Et debt — vij 1. x 8. 

Sup Ipm Compu*« de Arr firm g hui^ Anni. Eo qd bet 
Die ut sup — vij 1 x s. 

CoMP'us Bup^dci Robti Tooker firmar ibm p tempus pdcm. 
Nutt put in pede Vltimi Compi Anni px pceden plenius 

cent'. 

Sm"' — nuft. 



ffirm' Reef. 



Reef de 

Bampton'. 

Arrerag'. 






Sed r de—xlli. de firm Rector ibm cu Mane dom Clausur ffi«n'. 
terr Ten necnon fruc! decim oblacion & At pfic quibuscuq^ 
eidm Reel ptin sic diih pfa! Compu* de quinquen in quinqueii 
duran ?mIo Ix* Annex p Inden da? xxiiij*° die Julij Anno rre 
Henrici viij'» xxvj*« sot ad fies! Pasche & Nat Diii p equat 
porciori cu xxl. p penc Vicar ibm xls. sot Epo Exoii & 
Decan & Capitlo ibmp pencion § Ac xvs. ixd. sot Arcbno 
Exoii p Sinod & pcur Omib} At oSib} pochiat & Capelt §ci 
Luce put in eadem Indefi ad larg irro* plenius cont«". 

Sm"--xlli. 
Sm*^ ToHis ffirme pdic?—xlli. 

D quib). 

Idm Compu! in Denar solu! Vicar ibm p pencioii S ad Penc' & Potc' 
XX 1. p Annu sic sibi & Succ suis concesS p quandm Compos l\^l^ ^ 
inde m? die? Vicar ac nup Abbem & Conven? ibm confec? viz. 
in Altone hmoi p tempus huius compi— xx 1. Et in Consilib) ^ideat'concess 
penciofi Ann" sot Epo "« & Decano «» & Capiflo Exofi 
exeunt ex* Rector pdict ad xl s. p Annu viz. in Altohe hmoi p 
tempus huius Compi put ab Antiq Allocar Con§ in Anfi 
pcedeii— xl s. Et in Denar solut Archno Exoii p Sinod & 
pcurac p Annu put oihino Allocar Cong — xv s. ix d. 

Sm"" — xxij 1. XV 8 ix d. 

Et in Denar p pdcm compu*'' libat ] lib'ac' denar'. 

Thome Arundell Mi* R^c Diii Rf ibm de ^^j. j jjj. ^ •- ^^ ^ ^^, 
exi? firm pdce sine bitt sed ha. ex Recognic J J •' 

g sup hunc compm . . . • • ' r^ «. 

Sm"- Allocac ot libac pdict— xll. Que quidm Sm corre- 
spond suihe To?lis firm pdic?. 

60. In 1553 we find the following monks still alive and 
enjoying their pensions : — 

John Tooker, Abbot 
John West 
Thomas Hooper 
William Gye 
William Alford . 
Benedict Lonege 
William Milford 
William Ebsworth 
John Jordayne . 
Thomas Maynard, Robert Troope, Hugo Harvey, and 
Simon Rugeway having died in the meantime. 

61. The enlargement from the old Dartmoor Perambulation 

H 2 






60 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 13 4 


4 


3 6 8 


3 6 8 



.:¥ie '■■ 



rl 



! t 



« 

f 

i i 



i! 



'J ' 

f r 

'i 



52 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Map accompanying my first paper is incorrectly engraved. 
On reference, I find my drawing is right, but the litho- 
grapher has taken liberties, and on the right-hand side of the 
tower and transept has inserted an upper row of windows, 
giving the appearance of a clerestory, which is altogether 
wrong. The engraver has also made the buildings above, 
more distinct than they are in the original drawing. 

61. In connection with Sir Francis Drake, I may mention 
that after our last meeting Captain Swann, of Honiton, was 
good enough to write me, asking if I had met with any 
boxes on which were carved or engraved the arms of Sir 
Francis Drake, and describing one in his possession. 
Curiously enough, his letter reminded me of a box which I 
had seen, which, as far as 1 could recollect, corresponded 
with the description given by Captain Swann. Of course, 
when wanted, the box could not be found, and it was sup- 
psed to have been altogether lost Fortunately, within the 
fast few weeks it lias been recovered. It bears the inscription, 
John Brisset fecit, 1712. The arms of Drake appear in a 
shield, Afess wavy between two polar stars; above is a helmet 
and the crest, a ship under ruff^ drawn round a terrestrial globe 
with a cable rope by a hand out of the clouds. The letters 
A. D. stand for the crest motto. The motto, sic parms 
magna, is below the shield. At the top are the words " Sir 
Francis Drake," and below the ship the words, " The Adven- 
ture — Europe, America [? Hispania], Asia, Africa." The 
mantling is very good and the work delicate. 

There is a box similar to this in the British Museum, and I 
have heard of others, and it would seem that there are many 
in existence of various sizes. 



I 





THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



III. 

BUCKFAST. 







1. - 'u 



I 



[ 



THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OE DEVON. 



BUCKFAST. 



62. The Abbey of Bulfestra, the name by which we find 
it called when we first learn of its existence, occupies a site- 
within the hundred of Stanborough, the Deanery of Totnes, 
and the parish of Buckfastleigh— which is not so typical of a. 
Cistercian selection, nor so secluded, as are many of the house* 
of the White Monks. It is situated, it is true, in the deep 
valley, close by the river, selected originally more for use 
than pleasure, with the hills surrounding the retreat, and 
protecting the pasture land ; but still, beautiful as the position 
is, and charming as is the scenery (and those who know 
Turner's exquisite engraving will not say that the painter has 
exaggerated its loveHness), there is not that sense of repose, 
that feeling which comes over the visitor of distance and 
apparent estrangement from the world without, which is 
so characteristic of many abbeys of the Cistercians. I must 
assume my hearers to be acquainted with the facts relating to 
the general history of the order contained in my first paper, 

pars. 1 to 14. i • j 

63. Throughout this paper I shall use the convenient word 
" Buckfast " in speaking of the abbev. We find the spelling 
varying from time to time in the different documents relating 
to the house— Bulfestra, Bulfestre, Bugfasta, Bocfasta, Bus- 
sestre, and Buckfestria, are instances. In the earlier deeds 
the last syllable has ordinarily the ** r," which was dropped as 
time went on. The spelling Bussestre is evidently a mistake 
of the scribe or copyist mistaking the letter "f" for a 



lonff " 8." 



64. Unlike the abbey to which my two preceding chapters 
have been devoted, which was one of the latest mediaeval 
monastic foundations in England, the early history of the 
Abbey of Buckfast is bat in remote antiquity. 



I: 




54 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



55 




65. It is one of the common errors, which, like the vulgar 
belief that all monks were and are priests, I suppose will 
never be eradicated from the mind of the ordinary English- 
man, that monasteries had their rise in and only flourished 
during the middle ages. In spite of all that has been written 
and said, it is forgotten by many, that from the first institu- 
tion of Christianity, to say nothing of the earlier dispensation, 
lives of seclusion were found necessary for the welfare of 
many souls whose lots were cast in the midst of a world 
steeped in heathen wickedness. And Britain from the first 
had monks, and the ftuy of the English vented itself upon 
them, and upon their priests, their altars, and their churches. 
The story of the massacre of the monks of Bangor will recur 
to everyone, and scattered throughout the pages of the earliest 
chroniclers are references to places which, if not monasteries 
in the sense in which we use the word, were places of retire- 
ment and religious asceticism. If these facts are forgotten, it 
is not much to be wondered at that the early history of the 
Abbey of Buckfast should have been lost sight of by the 
casual reader. 

66. In all probability the abbey was in existence before 
the coming of the Nortli-man, and it is an unquestionable fact 
that monks were settled in the pleasant spot on the banks of 
the Dart long before the Norman Conquest. The account 
will therefore carry us far back through the story of England's 

history. - /. i i • i 

67. There appears to be no good reason for doubtuig the 
claim, rather proudly put forward by the Buckfast monks in 
the reign of Edward I., where the jurors affirm that they, 
the monks, said that the Abbey held a certain manor called 
Sele Monachorum, by the gift of King Cnut, — 

** Dicunt quod AWas Biicffestrie tenet quoddam manerium 
quod vocatur Sele monachorum in pei-petuam elemosinam de 
dono regis Cnud "—-B,oiu\i Hundredorum, Edw. I. 

There can be little question that that sagacious monarch 
was interested in some way in this part of his kingdom of 
Wessex. You will recollect Lyfing was his companion on 
his pilgrimage to Home, and to him, the then Abbot of 
Tavistock, afterwards the famous Bishop, the King entrusted 
that remarkable letter to his English people which contains 
so much kingly wisdom, and shows so much anxiety for 
the welfare of his subjects. Cnut, during his reign, did 
much for religion, and conferred many a gift upon the 
monks, and Ely and St Edmundsbury, Glastonbury and 
Winchester, among other places, benefited by his bounty. 






and long cherished his memory, and the Church, during the 
years of peace which he gave to the country, fostered 
literature, art, and, to some extent, science, and spread 
throughout the land " great buildings and busy schools." 

68. From the list of their possessions after the Conquest, it 
is not rash to assume that the monks of Buckfast received 
something more than the manor of Sele from the Danish 
King. In the possession of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter 
is a charter of Cnut, conferring land upon Burhwold, the 
Bishop of St Germans, in which I think may be recognised 
the names of places in Devon, and on the death of Burhwold 
the King assented to tlie request of Lyfing, who was then 
Bishop of Crediton, that the sees of St Germans and 
Crediton might be united, and to this king and the once 
Abbot of Tavistock, and to his successor Leofric, the esta- 
blishment of the see of Exeter, as we now have it, is due. It 
is in our time, after a union of nearly nine hundred years, 
that the ancient sees of Devon and Cornwall are again to be 
separated. 

69. From the death of Cnut, 1035, to the date of the 
Domesday Survey is but fifty years or thereabouts, and in the 
Great Survey we find clear evidence of the existence, and a 
list of the possessions, of Buckfast Abbey. Whatever the 
foundation of the Abbey might have been, Domesday Book 
shows us that at the time of the Survey Abbot Alwine and 
his monks were not only settled at Buckfast, which was the 
head of the abbacy, but had considerable possessions in land 
and other property in the county. The entries are interesting 
and valuable, and further on will be found translations which 
I have made from the Exeter and Exchequer books. The 
former, belonging to the Dean and Chapter, is supposed to 
have been the groundwork of the Exchequer book (the one 
intended to be preserved as the permanent record), and, as 
is apparent on comparing the two, much more full in its 
information. Thus, in 1086 it is clear that there was a 
religious house at a place called Bulfestra, that it had con- 
siderable property, and was apparently in a flourishing con- 
dition. There can be no question that this place was Buckfast 

Abbey. 

70. It has been always stated, that in some way or other 
this house was dissolved after the Conquest, its possessions 
confiscated, its inmates scattered, that this was probably the 
work of the Conqueror, and that the land was given to 
the Pomeroys. But this could not, I think, have been the 
case. Because, to a great extent, the troubles of the Con- 



i 



u 



'jJifcifc^ 




M 



THE CISTKBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



65. It is one of the common errors, which, like the vulgar 
belief that all monks were and are priests, I suppose will 
never be eradicated from the mind of the ordinary English- 
man, that monasteries had their rise in and only flourished 
during the middle ages. In spite of all that has been written 
and said, it is forgotten by many, that from the first institu- 
tion of Christianity, to say nothing of the earlier dispensation, 
lives of seclusion were found necessary for the welfare of 
many souls whose lots were cast in the midst of a world 
steeped in heathen wickedness. And Britain from the first 
had monks, and the fury of the English vented itself upon 
them, and upon their priests, their altars, and their churches. 
The story of the massacre of the monks of Bangor will recur 
to everyone, and scattered throughout the pages of the earliest 
chroniclers are references to places which, if not monasteries 
in the sense in which we use the word, were places of retire- 
ment and religious asceticism. If these facts are forgotten, it 
is not much to be wondered at that the early history of the 
Abbey of Buckfast should have been lost sight of by the 
casual reader. 

66. In all probability the abbey was in existence before 
the coming of the North-man, and it is an unquestionable fact 
that monks were settled in the pleasant spot on the banks of 
the Dart long before the Korman Conquest. The account 
will therefore carry us far back through the story of England's 
history. 

67. There appears to be no good reason for doubting the 
claim, rather proudly put forward by the Buckfast monks in 
the reign of Edward I., where the jurors affirm that they, 
the monks, said that the Abbey held a certain manor called 
Sele Monachorum, by the gift of King Cnut, — 

** Dicunt quod AUxia Bucffestrie tenet quoddam manerium 
quod ijocatur Sele monachorum in perpetuam elemosinam de 
dona regis Cnud.'^ — Rotuli Hundredorum, Edw. I. 

There can be little question that that sagacious monarch 
was interested in some way in this part of his kingdom of 
Wessex. You will recollect Lyfing was his companion on 
his pilgrimage to Rome, and to him, the then Abbot of 
Tavistock, afterwards the famous Bishop, the King entrusted 
that remarkable letter to his English people which contains 
so much kingly wisdom, and shows so much anxiety for 
the welfare of his subjects. Cnut, during his reign, did 
much for religion, and conferred many a gift upon the 
monks, and Ely and St Edmundsbury, Glastonbury and 
Winchester, among other places, benefited by his bounty, 



•Pi 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



55 



\ 



and long cherished his memory, and the Church, during the 
years of peace which he gave to the country, fostered 
literature, art, and, to some extent, science, and spread 
throughout the land " great buildings and busy schools.'* 

68. From the list of their possessions after the Conquest, it 
is not rash to assume that the monks of Buckfast received 
something more than the manor of Sele from the Danish 
King. In the possession of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter 
is a charter of Cnut, conferring land upon Burhwold, the 
Bishop of St Germans, in which I think may be recognised 
the names of places in Devon, and on the death of Burhwold 
the King assented to tlie request of Lyfing, who was then 
Bishop of Crediton, that the sees of St Germans and 
Crediton might be united, and to this king and the once 
Abbot of Tavistock, and to his successor Leofric, the esta- 
blishment of the see of Exeter, as we now have it, is due. It 
is in our time, after a union of nearly nine hundred years, 
that the ancient sees of Devon and Cornwall are again to be 
separated. 

69. From the death of Cnut, 1035, to the date of the 
Domesday Survey is but fifty years or thereabouts, and in the 
Great Survey we find clear evidence of the existence, and a 
list of the possessions, of Buckfast Abbey. Whatever the 
foundation of the Abbey might have been, Domesday Book 
shows us that at the time of the Survey Abbot Alwine and 
his monks were not only settled at Buckfast, which was the 
head of the abbacy, but had considerable possessions in land 
and other property in the county. The entries are interesting 
and valuable, and further on will be found translations which 
I have made from the Exeter and Exchequer books. The 
former, belonging to the Dean and Chapter, is supposed to 
have been the groundwork of the Exchequer book (the one 
intended to be preserved as the permanent record), and, as 
is apparent on comparing the two, much more full in its 
information. Thus, in 1086 it is clear that there was a 
religious house at a place called Bulfestra, that it had con- 
siderable property, and was apparently in a flourishing con- 
dition. There can be no question that this place was Buckfast 
Abbey. 

70. It has been always stated, that in some way or other 
this house was dissolved after the Conquest, its possessions 
confiscated, its inmates scattered, that this was probably the 
work of the Conqueror, and that the land was given to 
the Pomeroys. But this could not, I think, have been the 

Because, to a great extent, the troubles of the Con- 



i 



case. 



I 

\ 

I" 



,4ai. 



>rt<^i . . 1^ 






y^ 






56 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



57 



quest were over, the land had been apportioned, William 
had rewarded his companions, and among the great lords 
whose lands are enumerated in Domesday the Abbey of 
Buckfast appears with Baldwin de Redvers, William de 
Pomeroy, and others, as holding large domains Domesday 
Book was completed only a short time before William met 
his death in the streets of Mantes, and yet within fifty years 
the abbey is said to have been dissolved, its possessions 
divided, and a new house founded in the same place. If such 
were the case, how did it happen, and what were the reasons 
for such a spoliation ? A conjecture might be hazarded that 
the Red King found the abbey lands conveniently near his 
hunting-grounds in the Forest of the Dartmoors, and took 
possession of them with the usual disregard of the rights of 
the Church shown by him, but there is no evidence to support 
such a theory, and I think, although the contrary has always 
been stated, that I shall be able to adduce ^ood grounds for 
believing that the monks of Buckfast contmued to hold the 
lands that belonged to them at the time of the Great Survey 
uninterruptedly for five centuries after. 

71. The only evidence as to the supposed dissolution and 
re-foundation of the Abbey is the unsupported statement of 
Leland, who says that Ethelwardus Jilius GuL Pomerey erat 
primus fundator. Coll. Heame, vol. i. p. 80, ed. 1770. Dug- 
dale, with more caution, following him, says, that Ethel ward 
is said to have been its founder, and Pole, Westcote, and Risdon, 
wishing to convey the same information, but making utter 
eonftision of it and copying one another, tell us in the calmest 
way, that Duke Alford erected a fair abbey of the Order of 
Cistercians, Pole and Risdon saying that this happened 
before the Conquest. It is, I think, evident that the Duke 
Alford of the last mentioned writers is the Ethelward of 
Leland and Dugdale. It is also very evident that the addi- 
tional statement of Pole and Risdon, " before the Conquest," 
cannot be true, simply because it is certain tliat there were no 
Cistercians in existence anywhere for more than thirty years 
after the Conquest, and that there was no Cistercian house in 
England until the year 1128. 

72. An examination of the case with reference to Ethel- 
ward also induces us to believe that the claim made for him 
that he was the founder rests on no substantial foundation. 
His name is not mentioned in any deed or charter relating to 
the Abbey, and he is not in any way referred to in the royal 
confirmations of Henry and Richard, which are dated not 
long aft»r 1 137, the date of the alleged foundation. Again, the 



I 



«,•• 



greater part, if not the whole, of the lands mentioned in 
Domesday can be traced as being in the possession of the 
abbey at the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the 
thir<^eenth centuries; and even supposing that they had in 
some mysterious way, scattered as they were throughout the 
county, come as a whole into the hands of Ethelward de 
Pomeroy, it is not likely that they would have been granted 
in their entirety to the monks of Buckfast. But there is 
another fact of greater weight. In the deed of King Henry, 
which I shall refer to presently, and which was given before 
1161, all the lands and tenements, and so on, belonging to 
the Abbey were confirmed to the monks, as they held them, 
" ayi meV Henry died in 1 135, two years before the alleged 
foundation by Ethelward. We have therefore to suppose 
that the land continued in the possession of the Abbey from 
the date of Domesday until some time in the reign of Henry I. 
and then it passed somehow to Ethelward, who in course of 
time established the monks afi-esh in the same locality, and 
endowed them with the same lands. In the unsettled state 
of the country during the r'^ign of Stephen, the monks did 
not, as far as we know, trouble themselves to obtain a confir- 
mation from that monarch ; but, as soon as Henry's kingdom 
was firmly established, a charter confirming them in their 
possessions was obtained from the king. 

73. Doubtless Ethelward was a benefactor to the Abbey, 
and on this account he and his descendants were held in 
grateful remembrance by the monks for many a long year, 
and on several parts of the ruined buildings, before their final 
destruction, the crest or badge of the Pomeroys, the red lion 
rampant, was to be seen, and there can be little question but 
that the story of Ethelward being the founder of the abbey 
arose from this fact. 

74. I think, therefore, we may conclude, as far as the 
evidence goes at present, that there was no dissolution of the 
Abbey, and that Ethelward was not the first founder. 

75. We have no clue whatever as to what the original 
foundation of the Abbey was, but in all probability it was 
Benedictine, and we know tliat it became a daughter house 
of Savigny, which sprang from the hermitage, afterwards 
the abbey, founded by Raoul de Fugeres and John de Lan- 
dere in 1112, and which in 1148 was united to the Cistercian 
Order. Whether Buckfast became Cistercian at the time 
that Savigny and many others did, cannot be ascertained ; 
probably it did not, as the confirmation charter of Henry II. 
about 1161, speaks of the monks " que sunt ordine Savigny" 

I 



I 



* 



l<lr\..^.^»4L. 



■j^~'i^* di, ^ .V'*l 



..iMjiferAjiiiiii: li'litj' 



'I 

I' 



n; - 



^i 



58 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



which seem to show that Buckfast did not pass in 1148, when 
the fourth Abbot of Savigny surrendered his house and its 
dependencies into the hands of St Bernard. Leland says, 
" Ccenohium de Bukfest olim incepit per fr aires quos appella- 
hunt Grysaosy deinde admisit Bemardinos" Collectanea^ vol. 
3 (4) p. 152, ed. 1770. 

76. Here he says that the monastery of Buckfast was com- 
menced by brethren called " Grysaeos," afterwards admitted 
Bemardines. " Grysaeos " stands for the " grisei monachi," 
the monks of the order of Savignv. This extract from 
Leland I have never seen quoted ; perhaps, from the sentence 
being curiously inserted in a list of manuscripts belonging 
to the Abbey, it has been overlooked. Leland's statement is 
confirmed by that in the charter of Henry II., to whioh I 
have just referred, ** monachis de Bugfasta qui sunt de ordine 
de Savineio.^^ 

77. What led Dr. Oliver to make the statement that 
Buckfast was colonized from Waverley I cannot imagine. 
There is not the slightest evidence, so far as I am aware, of 
there having been any connection between Waverley and 
Buckfast Dr. Oliver seems also to have been confused as to 
Waverley itself, for he says that it was a daughter of the 
Abbey of St. Mary at Savigny, the fact being that it was a 
daughter of L'Aumone. 

78. There is no foundation charter of the Abbey. The 
earliest document I can find relating to it, after Domesday, 
is the patent of Henry II., of which I have before spoken, 
confirming to the monks of Bugfast the church and abbey of 
Bugfasta and all the lands and tenements, &c., belonging to 
them, as they held them in the time of King Henry, " avi 

The deed contains no names of places, or particulars 



mei. 



as to the property of the Abbey ; but it is interesting, and 
must have been granted some time before April, 1161, as 
among the witnesses are Theobald the Archbishop and 
Tliomas the Chancellor, the famous Thomas Becket 

Henry King of England and Duke of Normandy and 
Aquitaine and Count of Anjou. To the Archbishops 
&c. health. Know that I have granted in perpetual 
alms to the Monks of Bugfast, who are of the order 
of Savigny, the Church and Abbey of Bugfast, with 
all lands and tenements and churches and other pos- 
sessions to the said church belonging, so well and in 
peace, &c. as if the aforesaid abbacy ever, <fec. held in 



J: 



m 



BUCKF4.ST ABBEY. 



59 



the time of King Henry my grandfather, &c. These 
being witnesses : 

Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Thomas, Chancellor. 

Humphrey of Bohun, Steward. 

KOGER DE NOVANT. 

Warren son of Gerald, Chamberlaine, & 
William the son of Hamo. 
At Worcester. 

(Patent Rolls, 1 Edw. IV , p. 2, m. 4.) 

79. I have also obtained another copy of a charter, which 
is apparently the same as this, but differing slightly in the 
wording, and more full and precise in the description of the 
benefits conferred. It speaks of tlie monks of Buckfast as of 
the order of Cistercium (at least the word appears to be this) 
instead of Savigny, as in the other. The charter is nearly 
illegible at the edges, and many of the words are obliterated. 

H. [illegible] Sciatis me p di amore & p salute anie mee 
& p aniab} onium antecessors liiox Qcessisse & in ppetuam 
Elemosina c'firmasse do & Monachis de Bugfasta de ordine de 
Custerc ones tras & Tenuras suas q*s Racionabilit habnt libe 
tenendis cu socha & sacha & Thol & Them & Infangene? & cu 
onib} aliis libtatib) & libis c'suetudinib) [Q""re?] volo & [firmir ?] 
pcipio qd ipi & hedes eo^ hant in pace libtates suas & quietan- 
cias de Scyr & hundr & placitis & auerel & Murdr & hidagiis & 
Scutagiis & Geldis & Danegeldis Lillegible] & c'suetudinib) de 
Moris & oni seclari svico & exaccoe sic mea Elemosina pp*a. 
i T. Thoiii Cane: etc. (Cartae Antiquse. Y.) 

80. But before the date of this charter, we have mentioned, 
in 1143, the Abbot of Buckfast, Eustachius, who was wit- 
ness to an agreement between the abbot of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields and the Chapter of the Cathedral of Exeter in that 
year. This is the first Abbdt of whom mention is made, after 
the English abbot Alwaine or Alcuin, whose name occurs in 
Domesday Book. 

81. There is also a deed, which may possibly be earlier 
than the confirmation deed of Henry II., being a grant to 
the church of Buckfast by Henry de Novant, for the health 
of his soul an A. that of his wife Elizabeth, of the land of 
Scirhull, which he and his father granted to the monas- 
tery. 

82. The date of this document is uncertain. If the grantor 
is Henry de Novant, son of Roger de Novant, to whom largo 

2i 



nd 



M 



60 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



grants of land were made by Henry I., it is the earliest deed 
we have relating to the Abbey. There was a Roger, a grand- 
son, and he had also a son called Henry, but Pole, Coll., p. 
169, says, that the wife of this last-mentioned Heniy was 
Isabel Bulbek, whereas the name of the wife of the Henry 
Novant of the deed is Elizabeth. It is to be noticed that, if 
the earlier date is the correct one, we have another piece of 
evidence against the destruction and resuscitation of the 
Abbey after the Conquest, for it shows that in the reign of 
Henry I. it was flourishing. 

Hucitfast. Notu sit 6ibus &c. qd ego Hen. de Nunant p salute 
anime raee et spouse mee Elizab' dedi et concessi Eccles' de 
Bokfasta omne ter' de Scirhull &c. qua pater mens Rog' et 
ego prius conces' Praedict Monachis. Test. Will'o fil Stephani 
Johe Longo &c. H. 2, Pole's M.S., p. 182. (Add. MSS. 
(Brit. Mus ) 28,649, p. 394.) 

83. In 1189, Nov. 18, about two months after his acces- 
sion, and not long before his departure for the Third Crusade, 
Richard I. confirms to the monks of Buckfast, by the hand 
of his newly nominated Chancellor, the famous Bishop of 
Ely, William Longchamps, the possessions which they then 
held, and apparenSy confers upon them further privileges. 
As in the former deeds, the words are general : — 

Ricardus Dei gratia rex Angliae, Dux Normannie et Aqui- 
tanie, comes Andegavie, archiepiscopus, etc. salutem. Sciatis 
nos pro Dei amore et pro salute anime nostre et omnium 
antecessorum et successorum nostrorum concessisse et pre- 
senti carta confirmasse Deo et ecclesie beate Marie de Boc- 
fasta et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus omnes donationes 
que eis rationabiliter facte sunt in terns et tenuris et tene- 
mentis in liberam et puram et perpetuam elemosinam. Quare 
volumus et firmiter precipimus quod predicti monachi habeant 
et teneant oranes terras et tenuras et tenementa eis ration- 
abiliter data in bosco et piano in viis et semitis in agnis et 
molendinis in vivariis et stagnis in pratis et pascuis in 
homagiis et serviciis et releviis in grangiis et virgulis infi-a 
burgum et extra cum soch et sach et thol et theam et infan- 
genethef. 

Cuncedimus etiam eis et hominibus suis quietanciam de 
theloneo et passagio et pontagio et de schiris ct hundredis et 
de omnibus placitis et querelis et de pecunia que ad murdrum 
et latrocinium pertinet 



T 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



61 



Preterea concedimus eis et hominibus suis quietanciam de 
heingwita et de flemeniswita et de blodwita et de girthwita et 
de hidagio et scutagio et geldis et danegeldis et de operacioni- 
bus castellorum et de essart et de waste foreste et de rewardo 
et placitis foreste et de auxiliis vicecomitum et de misericordia 
comitatus et de omnibus auxiliis et de clifwardis et de consue- 
tudiuibus et de moris et de omni seculari servicio et exactione. 
Concedimus etiam eis pasturam in moris per totam annum 
ad omne genus pecudum suorum. 

Prohibemus etiam ne quis predictos monachos gravet vel 
eis aliquam injuriam aut molestiam aut gravamen iaciat, nee 
eos in placitum ponet de aliquo tenemento nisi coram nobis 
vel capitali justiciario nostro. 

Testibus : Hugone Dun, Johanne Norwic, Huberto Sarum 
episcopis. Rogero le Bigot, Waltero filio Robei*ti, Galfrido 
filio Petri. 

Dat' apud S. Eadmundum, Nov. 18, per manum Willielmi 
Elien. electi, cancellarii noslii A. R. prime. (Cartas Anti- 
quae, S. No. 19.) 

84. We have another glimpse of the Abbey in 1196, when 
we find William, Abbot of Bukfestria, witnessing the execu- 
tion of the foundation deed of the Premonstratensian Abbey 
of Tor by William Lord Bruiere, in that year. 

85. Early in the thirteenth century we find Nicholas 
Abbot at Buckfast, he granting to John Lambrith lands and 
houses at Exeter, in what was then and still is the High 
Street there. 

Omnibus fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum pervenerit 
NiCHOLAUs, Abbas de Buckfesti, et ejusdem loci conventus, 
salutem in Domino 

Noverit universitas vestra nos concessisse et dedisse 
Johanni Lambrith totam terram et domus nostras que 
fuerunt Ailmari Atlekin in Exon, scilicet duos sellas in 
regno vice cum introitu ejusdem domus versus magnum 
vicum Exonie, et omnes domes et terram retro, cum solario 
et pertinenciis sicud paries domus Ricardi Stukard' rectd 
linea ducit in cimiterium sibi et illis quos inde heredes con- 
stituere voluerint, Tenendum de nobis inperpetuum jure 
hereditario libere et quiete reddendo inde annuatim nobis et 
successoribus nostris unam libram piperis ad pascha et domui 
hospitalis Sancti Johannis decem solidos per manu nostra ad 
quatuor annis terminos. Et nos tenemur warantizare pre- 
dictas sellas et domes et terram predict© Johanni et here- 
dibus suis adversus omnes homines. 



>j. \ *...■■,■ . 



•'\-f 'i]^ _ 



62 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



63 



Et si predicta tenementa prefato Johanni et heredibus 
8U]8 warantizare non possumus faciemus sibi vel heredibus 
8U18 rafaonabile exscambium. 

Pro hac autem concessione et donatione nostra dedit nobis 
predictus Johannes vigniti et quinque marcas argenti. Quod 

C^nfi^^'l'w^r^"''^* ^'^'^^'' "''^*'''' ^''^^^''^ "^^'^^ ap^sito 
Hiis Testibus : 

Magistro Willielmo Paz. 

Samsone et Rogero filiis Henrici tunc prepositis. 

Waltero fiho Turberti. 

Willielmo Hastemend. 

Johanne Caperum. 

Martino Toton. 

Johanne Puddin. 

Johanne filio Walteri filii Tuberti. 

Roberto Tabernar. 

Waltero le Gyawe. 

Hare et multis aliis. 

Original in possession of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. 
— (Ohver's Monast. Sup. pp. 33, 34.) 

, ?^ ^l ^^'^ i^^' """^ P""^^ ^^ P^PP®*" is reserved annuallv 
to the abbot and his successors and 10s. to the house of the 
hospital of St. John, Exeter. That the Abbev of Buckfast 
was interested in, and helped to support "this hospital, 
formerly that of St. Alexius, it is certain, but, so far, I have 
not been able to ascertain what the nature of the connection 
between them was. From an entry in the register of the 
hospital, now m possession of the Corporation of' Exeter, Dr 
Oliver thought that Abbot William granted an annuity of 
dOs. te the master and brethren of the old hospital, to issue 
from certain estates the names of which i-e given as 
Lamenecote and Einilde, of which we know nothing now. 

«7 In 1207 a thirteenth part of the goods of the Church 
was demanded ot the bishops and clergy by King John. 

IZ?'a 7T T^ ^ff°?e* ^"^^"^ ^^'' ^«°^*"d» J^^n being 
a fnond of the order : " Ad guam colligendam midt ministros 

mos per universes comitatus AngluB; at hac exactione liber 
•SonasrlL p.^^.tr-"-"^^"^^^ '' ^^^^^^^^ ^- 

f.Jt.^^A"^ ^ u'^T.*^^ ""^ ^°^ ^« «bW received 
further gi^. Richard de Bauzan, whose pedigree I have 

not been able satisfact § ily to make out, gives alT his land of 



11 



Holne, with the appurtenances, to the abbot and convent of 
Buckfast. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Ricardus Bausan dedi, 
concessi, et hac presenti carta mea conlirmavi abbati et con- 
ventui de Bufestre, Deo et beate Marie servientibus, in puram 
et perpetuam elemosinam, pro animabus patris mei et matris 
mee et fratris mei Stephani Bauzan, totam terram meam de 
Holna cum omnibus pertinentiis suis ut in dominicis, villena- 
giis, boscis, turbariis, homagiis,- et serviciis liberorum, vide- 
licet Stephani Mugge, Michaelis Mugge, Wimundi Sele, 
Osberti Corbyn, et Warini de Budditone, et omnibus aliis 
pertinentiis tenendam et habendam dictis abbati et conventui 
et eorum successoribus vel cui earn assignare voluerint, de 
me et heredibus meis, libere, quiete, iutegre et pacifice jure 
hereditario imperpetnam in viis semitis, &c. faciendo inde 
mihi et heredibus meis ipsi et successores sui vel eorum 
assignati tricessimam partem feodi unius militis pro omni 
servicio, querela, demanda, acta et exactione. 

Hiis testibus : Gilberto de Umfranvill, Hugone de Cardi- 
nan, Martino de Fisacre, Gilberto filio Stephani, Philippo de 
Bodrigan, Waltero Bernas, Nicholao de Ferariis, et aUis. 

89. Lysons states that " the Manor of South Holne was 
given to the Abbey of Buckfastleigh by Reginald de Valletort, 
in the early part of the thirteenth century," Devon, p. 277, and 
goes by on to say that another manor of Holne was given them 
by Stephen Bauzun, which is manifestly a mistake. I have not 
been able to verify the statement that the Valletorts were 
donors to the abbey either of lands in Holne or elsewhere, 
and if, as seems to be the case from the deed I have just 
given, from the information given by the Hundred Roll, and 
from the fact of the arms of the Abbey being still to be seen 
upon the screen in the church, the monks held lands there, 
they must in some way have disposed of them before the 
Dissolution, for the ministers' accounts contain no mention 
whatever of property there. Of course the statement of 
Lysons, that the church of Holne was appropriated to the 
Abbey of Buckfast, is a mistake. It belonged to the see of 
Exeter, and was granted by Bishop Grandisson to St. John's 
Hospital in that city. 

90. There is an order, dated in 1215,. from King John to, 
among others, the Abbots of Ford and Buckfast, for the 
delivery of whatever vessels, jewels, &c might be in their 
custody, handed them for safe keeping. This appears to be 



' . I 



I 



it 



fa.^i. 






64 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



one instance of the ordinary deposit of valuables with the 
officers of a reh'gious house for their preservation, and not a 
deposit to secure the repayment of a loan due to the house, 
an instance of which we shall find further on. 

91. In 1225, among the Feet of Fines, there is an entry 
of the final proceedings on the sale to the abbot of seven 
acres and a half of meadow land in Sele, which I give, as it 
enables me to add the name of Abbot Michael, the first of 
some abbots whose names have -not hitherto been recorded, 
which I have the pleasure of adding to the list contained in 
the Monasticon. 

Hec est final concordia fca in curio Dni Keg apd Exofi 
Die Sabbi px" post octati trinitatis Anno Regri Reg Henr fit 
Regis Johis Duodecim Coram Thofn de Mule? Robto de 
Lexinf Rado Musard & Jordan Oli? justic Itiriantib} & aliis 
dfii Reg fidehb} tiic ibi psentib) In? Simone Lampreie 
petete & Michaele Abbm de Buffes?r tenente de Septem acris 
p^ti & dimid cu ptifi in Sele. Un asSa mortis aiicessor 
sumonita fuit int eos in pfata curia Scilicet qd pdcus Sim 
remisit & quietu clamavit ae se & hedib) suis ipi Abbi & suc- 
cessorib) suis & ecctie sue de BufFestr imppfh totu jus & clamiu 
quod huit in toto pdco p*to cu ptiii. Et p h"c remissioe 
Quieta clamancia fine & cocordia idem Abbas dedit pdco 
Simon Septe marcas argnti. 

Feet of Fines, Devon. Henry III. No. 107. 

92. The friendship of John for the Cistercians did not last 
long. After his excommunication, he continued his exactions 
from the Church The chronicler of Waverley tells us : — 

Idem rex coUecto multo exercitu in mense Junio trans- 
fretavit in Hibemiam, ubi hostibus ad votum subactis dimissis 
ibi episcopo Norwicensi, Johanne de Grai, et Willelmo Mares- 
callo mense Septembri minus infestus omnibus viris Cister- 
ciensis ordinis rediit. Convenerat enim eos antequam trans- 
fretaret, sicut et csBteros, de auxilio ipsi praestando contra 
iminicos sues; et quia idem Cistercienses pecuniam ei ad 
libitum suum contra libertatem ordinis sui dare noluerunt, in 
immensum eos afflixit, et a singulis domibus brevissimo 
temporis spatio indulto, multe valde causum ita ut summa 
xxxiii m et ccc marcatum coUectio ilia excederat, violenter 
^torsit Ipsi vero per dirersas domos monachorum et cano- 
nicorum dispersi sunt Waverleia vero, omnibus facultatibus 
suiR distractis et ablatis, facta similiter dispersione mona- 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



65 



A 



chorum et conversorum circumquaque per Angliam, regis 
iram patienter sustinuit. Abbas ejusdem loci Johannes ter- 
tius timore regis peterritus, domum suum reliquit et de nocte 
latente aufugit. Acta sunt [haec] circum festum beati Mar- 
tini. Prohibuit etiam rex ut nullus de ordine Cisterciensi 
transfiretaret, aut de alienis in Angliam veniret. 

Annales de Waverleia. (Ann. Monast. vol. ii. p. 265.) 

93. Letters resigning their property were also extorted 
from the Cistercians and others, and under Henry III. both 
monks and Jews suffered. In the year 1225, when the 
King confirmed the charters, a fifteenth of all movables in 
the kingdom was granted to him to enable him to recover the 
English possessions in France. The annalist from whom I 
have quoted says : — 

" Monachi vero Cisterciensis ordinis, tam pro libertatibus 
quam pro gratia et benevolentia regis habenda, dederunt ei 
duo milia marcas argenti. Judaei autem existentes in Anglia 
dederunt ei eodem tempore quinque milia marcas argenti." — 
Ann. Waverleia ii., p. 300. 

Were the Jews richer than the monks, or were they more 
patriotic ? 

94. In 1236 the abbot and monks became members of the 
Merchants' Gild of Totnes. On the back of a roll of the gild, 
in the possession of the Corporation of Totnes, is written a 
covenant between the abbot, probably Michael or Howell, 
and the Convent of Buffestleigh, 20 Henry III., and the 
burgesses of Totnes, to the effect that the latter have ad- 
mitted the abbot and monks into the guild, so that they 
might make all their purchases in the same way as the bur- 

f esses, all sales, however, being excepted " nomine tabernse " 
y way of trading. Third Report, Hist. MSS. Com. p. 343. 
To go forward a little, twenty-four years later, we find the 
Abbot of Buffestie second on the roll of the gild, then 
numbering about two hundred members, following the Abbot 
of Tor. 

95. In 1243 we have entries on the Assize Rolls relating 
to disputes with the convent in respect to various properties. 

Plac' Corone et Assise, 

28 Hen. III. Devon. 
As§a venit rec Si Prior de Plumtoii ini^te etc. disS Abbem 
de Buffestre de Communa paste sue i Walleworth que ptinet 
ad libm teii suu in ead villa pt p'ma etc. 



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THE CISTERCIAN HOtJSES OF DEVON. 



Et Prior ven & iiich die qr assa remaneat 

Jur dnt qd pdcs Prior disg ^dcm Abbem de j^dca comuna 
ini^te etc. sic bre die. Et lo Consid est qd Abbs rec seis suam 
1 Prior I mia. p pt Wal?i de Bath. 

Dampn.Jjg. ^ ^ , 

• • ♦ • * 

Witts Swenge & Isab vx ei^ petut. 9 Abbem de Buffestr 

dim ferling ?re cu ptiii in Nyrifeud ut Jus & beditatem ipius 

Isab & i qua ide Abbs no ht ingrm n' p Kobm de Waleworth 

qui no n' custodiam iii buit du pdca Isab fii* inf» etate & m 

custodia sua etc. . . « 

Et Abbs ven & voc inde ad war Henr de Altariis qui [^sens 
est & ei war & deffend Jus suu qn "^c & tale ingrm & die qd huit 
ingrm i eand ?ra p Wittm frem frem* ipius Henr. Et qd ita 
sit ponit se sup priam. Et Witts & Isab sitr. Et ido fiat 

inde Jurata. o ~ ^ 

Jur dnt qd pdcs Abbs buit Ingrm i pdcam Vram p pdcm 
Robm de Walewortb du pdca IsabUa fuit If^ etatem & i 
custodia ipius Robti Dicut & qd pdcaf carta q'' Abbs pfert de 
feoffamento pdce ft-e f^a fuit ptq Jdcs Robs eide Abbi dimiS 
pdcam ?ra. Et lo conS est qd Witts & Isab rec sei§ suam. 
Et Henr in mia p pt Witti de Muthecumb & Robti de 
Avayngnes. Et fac escamb pdco Abbi ad vatn pdce tre etc. 
Et Abbs in mia p magna t^nsgr. 

Plac' de Jur' Coron' &c. 

33 Hen. III. Devon. 

Ad de Broth qui tulit bre nove disSie v's^ Abbem de Bucfestr 
& alios in bri de Libo ten suo in Tottofi ven & ret'xit se. lo 
ipe & pleg sui de pS in mia scitt Hugo de Corndon Rics 
Doulelegb de Brenta. Pleg Ad de mia sua. 

Assize Roll 1 >l-2 

32j 

96. The same year, on the Feet of Fines, we have an 
entry relating to another purchase by the convent of eight 
ferlings of land in Englebum in the parish of Harberton. 

Hec est finat concordia fca in Cur Dili Reg ap Exon In 
c»stino See Trinitatis Ann Regii Reg Henr fit Reg Job 
vicesimo octavo Cora Rog*o de Thurkelby Gilbto de Fston 
Jobe Abbe de Shyleborn & Robto de Bello capo Justic 

♦ Sic. bis. 

f It will be seen that no charter is before mentioned. 






BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



67 



Iti8antib3 & aliis dni Regf fidelib} tuc ibi gresentib} In? 
Abbem de Buffes?r quer & Thorn de Reyny & Johanna ux 
ejus inped de Octo filing ?re cii ptin in Engeleburn Unde 
plac War carte sum fuit in? eos in eadem cur Scitt qd pcdi 
feiom T; Johanna recognov'iit tota pdcam tra cu omib3 ptin 
suis esse jus ipius Abbis 1 Ecctie sue de Buffestr ut ilia q"" 
idem Abbas 1 Ecctia pdca bent de dono pdco^ Thorn 1 Jobe 
Habend 1 Tenend eidm Abbi 1 succ suis 4 Ecctie sue pdce de 
pdcis Thorn 1, Johanna 1 bedib} ipius Jobe in lib^am 1 ppetua 
Elemosina. Reddendo in p annu unu par Cyrothecaru albaru 
pcii sex denr 1 sex denr ad festu sci Micb et faciendo in 
forinsecu ?vic qd ad pdcam ?ra ptinet p 6i ?vic6 1 exaccoe 
Et pdci Thorn ^ Joba % h^edes ipi^ Jobe Warantizabut pdco 
Abbi 1 succ suis T; Ecctie sue pdce tota pdcam tra cu omnib) 
ptiii suis in lib^am T; ppetua elemosinam sua p pdcm ?vic 
cont* oms homies inppetuu. Et p h^c recognicoe War fine 
T; concordia Idem Abbs dedit pdcis Thorn \ Jobe sexaginta 
1 dece marcas argenti. — (Pedes Finium Devon. Hen. III. 
No. 369.) 

97. From the collections of Sir William Pole in the British 
Museum I have gleaned some little information relating to 
the Abbey, and some of its abbots. The first is dated the 
Feast of St. Lambert, 1246, and another William, hitherto 
unmentioned, is named in it. 

Wifltis Abbas de Bukfastr et ejusd. Loci Conven! Salut 
Nov Cum aliquando mot esset Placit inter nos et Witto de 
S^" Stephano de 24 Acris terre in La Dene una pax et con- 
cordia facta fuit in Curia Dni Reg inter nos et idm [sic] 
Wittum de S*** Stephano Man suu de Dene Ded. Priori et 
Conven? de Plympton nos dicta conces. confirm. Tes? Dno 
Tho : Arch. Tottoii, D^° Wtto de Widworthy et Galfrido de 
Prideas Milii Galfrido de La Ya, Robto le Peyterin alijsq,. 
Dat in festo s^' Lambti 1246.— (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. 
28,649, p. 381.) 

98. In 1247 Howell was abbot, and Durandus, Dr. 
Oliver says, was probably his successor, and in his time it is 
likely that those strange proceedings which occurred on the 
death of Bishop Blondy were investigated, and, as the abbot 
seems to have taken an important part in the inquiry, and as 
the inquiry was conducted in the chapter-house at Buckfast, 
I have thought it well to refer shortly to the matter. Bishop 
Blondy was consecrated Dec. 1st, 1245. He died 26 Dec, 

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THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OP DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



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1257. He was a prelate of piety and learning, and con- 
scientiously discharged the duty of his high office, but his 
biographers have confounded him with another of the same 
name, his opposite in every respect Soon after his death 
his enemies traduced his memory and accused him of allow- 
ing his servants to forge collations for their personal benefit. 
This, of course, soon came to the knowledge of his successor, 
Walter Bronescombe, and on the 19th of March Walter of 
Loddeswell, the ChanceUor, and Richard of Totnes, a notary, 
appeared before the Bishop and the Abbot of Buckfast in 
the chapter-house of Buckfast, and confessed to them that 
on the night of the late Bishop's death they entered his 
chamber and found several persons engaged in drawing up 
and signing letters for the disposal of benefices and the appro- 
priation of the effects of the Bishop, who then, if not actually 
a <X)rpse, was in extremis, and that after the parties were fully 
satisfied of the death of the Bishop many other letters were 
written and signed. Fuller details of the affair will be found 
in the extracts fi-om Bishop Bronscombe's Register, given in 
the Lives of the Bishops by Dr. Oliver.* 

99. In 1268 I can add the name of another new abbot, 
Henry, his name appearing in the following extract : — 

A« Regni Regis H. fit Johis 53 Facta fuit hsec concordia 
inter Henr Abbm de Bukfast et ejus[d] Loci convent et 
Rich filiu Aluredi de Dodeworthy p ocmuni pastura in Man 
de Brent. Tes! T)^ Wiito Probo {Le. Prous] Johede Niveton 
Johe de Boyvile Wiito de Killbury Wiito de Chiverston 
Johe de Davayly Petro de La Ya et mult. alijs.--(Add. 
MSS. Brit. Mus. 28,649, p. 381.) 

100. In the episcopal registers, where we frequently find 
similar entries, there is a record of Simon being blessed as 
abbot by the bishop on the Feast of the Nativity of St. John 
the Baptist, 1272. 

101. The conveyance of the land in Holne parish by 
Richard Bauzan is said by Dr. Oliver to have been made 
in the time of this abbot My impression is that it is of 
earlier date, but as I before said I have not been able satis- 
factorily to make out the Bauzan pedigreej and the learned 
doctor probably, although he does not give any evidence 
satisfied himself as to the correctness of his statement ' 

102. I now come to the entries in the important documents 
known as the Hundred Rolls, which contain thp results of 

* Lires of the Bishops of Exeter, pp. 37, 38, and 39- 



^9 




, the surv^ey made by special commissioners appointed by 
Edward I. to ascertain the state of the demesne lands, the 
revenue of the crown, the various tenures by which lands 
were held, and so forth. 

103. We find from the roll relating to Devon that the 
property of the Abbey had not much increased since Domes- 
day. Curiously enough Holne, said to have been granted by 
Richard Bauzan only a year or so before, is mentioned as 
Sutholn, the gift to the Abbey of Richard Bareyn. The 
commissioners made their returns, and, as it was necessary 
for the (Jourt of Exchequer to have in one view such parts of 
them as affected the crown and its rights, a selection from the 
fuller returns was made containing the entries relating to 
these matters. These latter rolls are called extracts, and th^y 
are valuable, as the fuller rolls of some counties are altogether 
lost Fortunately both the rolls relating to Devon are in 
existence, and I give here the return of the commissioners, 
and the extract therefrom as well, relating to the land of 
Buckfast : — 

Rotuli Hundredorum, Edward 1. Printed ed. 1812. Such fast. 

Hoc e' vered'cm xij jurator' Hundr'i forins' de Er- 
my'tone. 

Jurati Walt' de Fenton Jofe de la Porte Alvedr' de Ponte 
Wills de Karswitt Ric de Leg' Joh' de CoUaton Ric de 
Colamor' Rob* de Gudeford Rand' de Bahecumb' Rob*' de 
Wonigwill Walt' de Longeh^m Joh' de Bosco p' sac'^ment' 
suu diet 

It' Battekesburne Hetfell & EssA tenet" fuer 'de (Fnico 
coron' de R^gb} pdecessorib} Reg' q* iic e E in capite & 
tenet m'* abbas & dom^ Bufestie in pura & ppet' elemosina a 
q° tpr ignorat. p. 69. 

It' abbas <fe dom^ Bufestr' hnt' furcas in manor' de Het- 
fell & assis^m servis' ibidm & ap' Battekesbuhr a q° tpr' 
& q** war' ignorat'. p. 69. 

It' Bacekesburhe Hetfell & Essa fu^nt de dnico corone Extract', 
pdec R <fe tenet modo abbat Bufest'e in pura & ppetuam 
elemosina a quo tpe ignorant, p. 90. 

It' abbas Bufestr' habet furc' in maSio de Hetfell & Extract'. 
ass'm cvisie ibide & apud Hattekesburh a quo ?pe & quo 
waranto ignorant p. 91. 

Vered'cm Hundr' de Schefbeare. 

Et Abbas de Bufest^a het apud Pat^chstowe ftircas assis*m 
cvis & alias libertates regias & het war' sed de quo Rege 
ignorant p. 78. 



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BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



71 



70 



THE CI8TERCJAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Extract'. & Abbas de BufFestria ht apud Patrichestowe furc' & 

assias 2visie and alias libertat' regias & habet war' de quo 
Rege ignorant, p. 94. ^ , 

Veredictu' xij It' q» clamant refnu vl exfctu breviu & qS tenent placit 

jnr'deHundr's ^q naumeo vetito vl clamant here wrecku mar. 

de Stanburg'. j)|^^^ ^^ j^^jj sed . . • • & man'iu de Brente & 

rcburchtowe.] man'ia de Buffestr' q* sut abbat' de BufFest' ' ' • ' f 
maiiiu de Thurestowe ten3 abbas de Buffest' & tint fiircas & 
assis' pan' & s'vic & in q« maSio est novu' burg' q' respondet 
p' se p' vi. mr & tenent iiicatu die Ven'is & tenet placit 
assis' pan., & sVis q° waranto ignorant, p. 79. 

It' de his q^ hnt libtate p Reg. Angl' concessas. 

Dicut q* abbas de Buffest' clam' here libtate q* q*eti sint de 
hid' murdriis & aliis q'ib) guldis quo warranto ignorant. 

p. 79. 

It' de pprest'is fcis. 

Dicut q^ abbas de BufFesf ' & convent' fecunt pprest'am de 
qod magno wasto Qmunis mora in ausfle pte de Dertemorb 
ad nocuraentu' toci' pat^e q' in tape H. Reg' p'tis d'ni E' Reg'^ 
q» nuc est Howaldus abbas de Biffesf and convent' predic* 
wastu' sibi approp^aJut & teiit & vendut carbon' t'*» & past'as 
de anno in annu & capiut inde redd' quo waranto ignorant 
ad dampm annuatim xi». p. 79. 

It' dicut' q'd Rog's Mirabel tenuit t'ram de SciREDON de 
d'no Reg' in capit' p' s'jantiam t^'u sagittaj quandocuq' d'ns 
Rex c'eret in foresta de Dertemore q' fee' feloniam p' q^ 
utlagiat' fuit & tuc' predcam tram accidit in man' dni Reg. H. 
pat% diii Reg' Ed q* dedit illam magro Walto Medico & modo 
ten} Joh' de Boyvile & Dyonis' ux' sua fil & hes' predci 
Walft & ptea duo ferling' tre in Kyngdon ptin predce s'ganc 
de SciREDON alienata est de novo tepe isti' aeg' p' Nichm de 
Kyngdon libe tenent' predce tre de Kyngdon q* dedit illam 
abbat' & convent' de BuffeStre & val) p' ann' x sol', p. 79. 

Veredictu' Hundri' de Teyngebrugg'. 

Dicut & Q* maSia de Kingdon Sekiredon & Hokneton 




^^__ psvic iiy 

t'lim sagittax q*ndo dns R voluit venare in foresta de 
Dertemore. Que q'd maiiia p mortem pdci Waiti decendebant 
cuidam Dionis' filie sue q*m Johnes de Boyvile ht^ in ux' & 
idm tenent maiiia p'dicta maiiia de dno R p' s'vic pdcm 
excepto uno ferlingo tre q' abbas Buffestr' m** ten} p' 



If 



alienacone Nichi de Kingdon tenen* dci Johnis de Boyvile 
q*m fee' eidm abbti <fe valent maiiia pdicta p' annu xl'^s unde 
Kingdon valet viij s. p. 81. 

D' hiis qui Clam' retumu' vel extract' breviu' &c. 

Dnt qd qd Hugo de Ferrar' & Witts de Chiv'ston apud ^^^ ^^, 
Thurleston, Gilbo de Cnovitt Lodeswell Abbas de Buffestria S**°^"^g 
apud Brente & Buffestr' Johes de Boyvill apud Sciredon *'^*''*^*- 
prior de Plimton apud Den Abbas de Sco Donmel' apud 
Kastriwe Nich' fil Martini apud Derlington Rog's de 
Mules apud Dupeford et Johes de Besillis apud Alfington 
hut furc' & assisas c'visie set [sed ?] nesciiit quo waranto. 
It' Abbas BufFest'e in man'io de Churestorwe habet fur' et 
assias panis & c'visie in quo man'io est novo burg' qui res- 
pondit p' se p' vj jur' & tenet m'cutu die VeSis & hnt assias 
panis & c'visie s} nesciOt quo waranto. p. 91. 

It de hiis qui h'nt libertate &c. 

D'nt q'd abbas Buffestrie clam' hre lib' qd quiet' est de Extract, 
hidag' murdriis & aliis coinunib} gildis s} nesciut quo war' 
& man'iu de Dertigton et Dupeford quiet' sint d'coib} 
gildis & de turno vie' s} nesciut quo war'. Et sei^ q'd 
Nichs fil Martini tenet man'iu de Dertigton Rog's de Mules 
man'iu de Dupeford & Gilb' de Conevill man'iu de Lodes- 
well, p. 91. 

It de hiis qui de novo appropriav'int chac' &c. 

Dnt qd man'ia de Dupeford Derlington and L 

clam' hre warenna & hut s} a quo ?pe vl quo waranto 
ignorant. 

D'nt q'd abbas de Buffestria & convent' fec'int purprestura 
de quoda' magno vasto comun' more in australi p'te de 
Dertemore ad nocumentu' totius patrie q' in t'pe H. Reg' 
p'ris d'ni Reg' nuc (nup ?) Hewaldus abbas Buffestrie & (Sic). 
convent' p'dcs vastu sibi appropriav'ut & tenet & vendut 
carbones turbas & pasturas de anno in annu & capiunt inde 
redd quo waranto ignorat ad dapnu annuali XL. sol. p. 91. 

Hund' de Colrig'. 
D' feodis dni' Reg' & tenentibu} ejus <fec. 

D'nt q* Rog's de Valle Torta tenuit baronium de Hurberton 
cu membr' de d'no Rege in capite p' s'viciu duo^ militu' ad 
bellu quando diis Rex h'uit necesse v'l q*tuor armigeru' & 
eadem baronia est nuc in manu d'ni Reg' p' morte d'ci Rog'i 
de qua baronia Abbas de Bufest'a tenet Sutholn p' donu 



■I •! 



\ 









wm% * \ J '* ^ i !■ P * Mfc " 



>rf' ■ ■ \^-m^sfm^^tmim 



72 



THE CISTERCUN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



73 



ill 






At Exeter. 
Octave of St. 
Martin. 
9-10 Ed. I. 
A.D. 1281. 



Rici' Barejn qui feoffat' fiiit de baronia de Hurberton et dedit 
eide abbati t*pe H. Reg' p'ris dfii R' nuc xl. q'nto. 

I? d'nt q'd abbas de Bufest'a tenet centu' acr' bosci apud 
Sutholn in man'io de Huberton que boscu elemosinavit Rads 
de Valle Torta fra't dci Rog'i nuper defuncti d'co abb'ti 
tpe ejusde' H. Reg' p'ris dni R. nuc XL. sodo. p. 89. 

104. In consequence of the returns of the commissioners 
it is supposed that the statute of Gloucester was enacted, and 
various holders of land were called upon to answer " Quo 
Waranto" such things had or had not been done, and in the 
Rolls of the Pleadings in answer we find that the Abbot of 
Buckfast was called upon to defend the then possessions of 
the house, inasmuch as he claimed to have a view of frank- 
pledge, assize of bread and beer, and free warren, and a 
gallows in Buckfast, Churstow, Heathfield, and Batteburg. 
The abbot by his attorney pleaded that he claimed no free 
wan'en, and that as to the gallows he produced the deed of 
Richard I., which gave him the rights he exercised, and as to 
the other matters he pleaded that the crown had no right to 
question him, for the places where they were exercised were 
within the precincts of the hundred of Roger de Moles and 
Richard, the Lords of the Manors of Stanborough and 
Ermington respectively. On behalf of the King it was alleged 
in reply, that privileges of that kind especially pertained to 
the King, and, as the abbot showed no warrant from the 
crown, judgment was demanded on its behalf. As far as I 
know there is no account of the termination of the case, 
which was tried at Exeter. It frequently happened that pro- 
ceedings, up to a certain point, were carried on, and then 
dropped, either because the King's advisers knew they had a 
bad case, or because it was not thought worth while to dis- 
turb the holders, or, which perhaps happened as frequently as 
either of the others, that unmolested possession was retained 
by judicious bribes. 

Abbas Buifestr sum fuit ad respond diio Regi de pto quo 
War clam hre visum f^nci pleg emend a§s panis <& cvi§ f*cte & 
furc in Buffestr Thorestowe Hecfeld & Batteberg & libam 
Warenn in dnicis tris suis ibidm sine licenc etc. 

Et Abbas p atorn suu veh Et quo ad libam warenn die qd 
nullam warenii clain in pdcis vitl Et quo ad furc die qd dns 
Rics Rex concessit ei Infangenethef & Itfangenethef in omib} 
pdcis vitl p cartam suam q*m pit & hoc idm testaf^ Id inde 
sine die Et quo ad visum t^nci pleg emend asS panis & ^vis 



f*cte in Buffestr & Thorestowe die qd sunt infra pcinctum 
Hundri Rof i de Moeles de Stanberwe Et quo ad Hecfeld & 
Battebergh die qd sunt inf * pcinctu Hundri Rici fit Stephi de 
Ermingtori in quibus Hundr nich po? acdsce diio Regi Et pe? 
judm. 

Here, in the later entry mentioned below, follows : " Et 
petit Judm si dns Rex accoem heat ad pdcas libtates petendas 
que sunt in alienis Hundris." , , .9 ^ 

Et Wilts de Gyselh^m qui sequif etc. Die qd huj mod 
libtates spali? ptinent ad Coron diii Reg Et desic nullu aliud 
ostend war lo ad judm. 

Dies dat^ est coram dno Rege a die Pascil in unu mensem 
ubicuq^ etc. [de audo Judo etc. Et Abbas po lo suo Waltm de 
ffyrsedoii, added on the Roll in the note.] 
•^ M^j 

Assize Roll. Devon 1 >Memb. 20 d. 

34J 
M] 
A similar entry in the Assize Roll 1 > 3 on memb. 37, 

33J 

with, here and there, a trifling variation in the Record. The 
names of places are written : " in Buffestre Thurescowe Het- 
feld & Batteburg & libam warennam in dnicis suis ibidem sine 
licencia etc." This last-mentioned entry will also be found in 
the Placita Quo Waranto. ed. Record Com. fol. 1818, p. 168. 

105. Of Robert, who was confirmed abbot in 1280, we 
have nothing to record. He did not, I think, continue abbot 
long, for I have found that Peter, whom Oliver mentions as 
occurring in 1306, was abbot at least as early as 1290, and 
his name appears again in 1295-6, as will be seen from the 
following extracts : — 

A** Regis E. 19, facta convene, inter Petru Abtem de 
Buckfastre et ejusd Loci convent ex vna pte et Jo^e de 
Hubernford ex all. p terra in Brenta. Test. Witto de Kil- 
berry Wiito de Boyvill. P. 9. (P. 381.) , ^ ,. , 

Convencio facta 24 E. inter Petr. Abb. de Buckfastr etc. 
et Johm Welbrok p ?ra in Brenta. Test. Pho de Boterford, 
Hen le Norreis, Hug de Corndon, Rico de la Forde, Rico de 
la Forde, Rico de Hubernford, 24 E. 1, p. 10. (Additional 
MSS. Brit. Mus. 28,649, p. 380. 

106. In Abbot Peter's time the Survey for the Taxation of 
Pope Nicholas was taken. In 1288 this Pope gave to Edward 
I. the tenth of all the revenues of the churches m England, 

L 



itll 




74 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Scotland, and Ireland, in aid of the war in the Holy Land. 
The survey was not made till 1291 and 1292, as the King did 
not immediately avail himself of the benevolence of the Church. 
The entries relating to this abbey are as follows : — 



Decanaf de Cadebur. 



Taxatio. Decima. 



Abbas Buffestr' p'cipit de ecclia de Donne 2 4 

Decanatus de Chamlegh. 

Abbas BufFestr' p'cipit de ecclia de Sele 

Decanatus de ToUon. 

Ecclia de Brenta 

Vicar' de eadem 

Ecclia de Birfestr* .... 
Vicar' de eadem .... 

Decanaf de Wodlegh, 

Pens' alibi l Abbas Bufestr' p'cipit de 1 
bnfic I Ecclia de Thurstonde* j 

Archidiaconaf TottorC. 

Maniu de Brent q*d tax' 

Maniu de Northon f q'd tax' . 

Apud Donfestr' % q'd tax' 

Apud Hedfelle § q d tax' 

Apud Bankesburgh || q'd tax' . 

Apud BodrikestonlF q'd tax' . 

Apud Sele q'd tax' 

Apud Dymm'** q'd tax' 

Apud Trisma q'd tax' 

Apud Robrok and Hyndon q'd tax' 
Siiia . . . 37 5 
Dec' . . . 3 14 6 

Taxatio Ecclesiastica, P. Nicholai, pp. 144, 
146, 149, 151-153, fol. 1802. 

107. In 1297, April 8, Edward I. visited the Abbey, pro- 
bably on his way to Plympton Priory. He was in Devon- 
shire fourteen years before, and spent some time at Exeter 
with Queen Eleanor, and the Court kept Yule-tide in the 
Bishop's palace. 

108. Abbot Peter was one of the witnesses to a deed with 
the Abbot of Tavistock and the Priors of Plympton and 



Abbas 
Buftr'^ 
het 



2 13 4 5 4 

6 13 4 13 4 

1 10 non ex 

5 6 8 10 8 

10 non ex 



13 4 14 



9 15 4 
6 6 8 
3 14 4 

8 
13 

4 8 

9 4 
10 
15 8 

8 



4 
2 
2 
2 
3 
1 



• Churchstow. 
t Notone. 
i Bnckfastlei^h. 
§ Heathfield. 



y Batisborough. 
^ Petrockstowe. 
•♦ Donne. 



: 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



75 



Totnes, which was an undertaking by the Burgesses of Ash- 
burton to provide a maintenance for a priest and necessaries 
for divine worship for the Chapel of St. Laurence, at Ash- 
burton. A transcript of this deed will be found in the Lives 
of the Bishops of Exeter, by Dr. Oliver, from the Registers 
of Bishop Stapledon, p. 69. Robert, Stephen, and John de 
Churstowe succeeded Peter, 1 Aug. 1316; 24 June, 1330; 
and 1 Nov. 1332. I have not found a single entry relating 
to acquisition of land, disputes leading to legal proceedings, 
or to any event in the history of the Abbey during the time 
of these three abbots. 

109. William Giffard was confirmed 6th June, 1333, his 
predecessor having been abbot for only about eight months. 
He seems to have been more than once involved in contro- 
versy as to the rights of his Abbey. I have not been able to 
trace in the Year Books the particulars of the dispute between 
him and the Stoners, the then Lords of the Hundred and 
Manor of Ermington, mentioned by Dr. Oliver ; and 1 have 
in other cases been unable to verify the learned doctor's 
references to public records, which in two or tln:ee instances 
I particularly regret. 

110. On the death of William Giffard early in 1349, 
Philip was admitted, 21 May, 1349, and in the following 
year he obtained from the King, a grant to his Abbey of 
a weekly market at Buckfastleigh, and a yearly fair at 
Brent, the former on Tuesday, and the latter on the feast 
of St. Michael and the two preceding days, to be held on 
Brent Down. I believe this fair is now represented by the 
Brent September fair. How long the Buckfastleigh weekly 
market continued I do not know, but an unsuccessful attempt 
to revive it was made early in this century. 

Grant to the Abbey of Bucfaste of a weekly Market 
AT Buckfastleigh and of a yearly Fair at Brent. 

^ eisdem* sattm. Sciatis nos de gra nra spali concessisse Pro abb'e et 
1 hac carta nra confirmasse ditcis nob in xpo Abbi 1 Conventui conuentu de 
de Bucfas? in Com Devon qd ipi 1 successores sui imppetuu Bucfast. 
heant vnu i9catu singlis septimanis p diem Martis apud 
Bucfastenlegh 1 vnara feriam singlis annis apud Brente in 
quadam placea vocata Brentedoune p tres dies duraturam 
vidett in die §ci Michis in mense Septembr T: p duos dies px 
jcedentes nisi iScatu illud 1 feria ilia sint ad nocumentu 

* Archiep'is Ep'is Ducib' Comitib' Baronibus Justic' vice commitib' pre- 
positis Ministris et om'ibu' Ball's et fidelib' suis. 

2 L 



ir 



■•CCIIil 



i': 



rtlM 



I 



76 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



77 



vicinox iScatox % vicinax feriax Quare volum^ T; fermir 
pcipim^ p nob T; heredib} nris qd pdci Abbas 1 Conventus T: 
successores sui imppetuQ lieant dca mcatu 1; feriam apud 
loca pdca cum omib) libtatib) T; libis consuetudinib} ad 
huiusmodi iScatu 1 feriam ptineiitib} Nisi mcatu illud T: feria 
ilia sint ad nocumentu vicinox mcato^ 1 vicina^ feria^ sieut 
pdcm est. Hiis testibj veSabilib} prib) J. Archiepo Ebo^ 
Angt Primate Cancellario riro W. Epo Wyntoii TheS iiro 
Henr Duce Lancastr Wilto de Bohun Nortit 1 Thoma de 
Bello Campo Wampo Warr Comitib} Bartho de Burgherssh 
seniore Johe de Grey de Retherfeld Senescallo hospicij nri 
1 aliis. Dat p manu iiram apud Wyndesore xxiiij die Aprilis. 

p ipm Rege nunc Wifto Mugge. 

(Charter Roll 25 to 27 Edw. III. m. 7.) 

111. Philip was not abbot lone. He was succeeded by 
Robert SimonB, whose name I fin3 frequently occurring in 
legal documents for nearly forty years. As early as 1358 he is 
mentioned, and as late as 1393. Whether it is that he was 
particularly litigious, or that his predecessors had been lax 
in their care of the rights of the Abbey, I do not know, but, 
besides the case of the Abbey against the Dean and Chapter 
of Exeter with reference to the fishery of the Dart,* I have 
found references to several other cases in the Assize and De 
Banco Rolls, some of which I give. 

112. The first relates to a claim made against the abbot 
by Richard Avery, who complains that on the Thursday after 
the Feast of St. Dionysius in the 30th year of Edward III., 
the Abbot vi et armis, at Trusham, carried off the goods and 
chattels of the said Richard, labour horses [jumenta], oxen, 
cows, heifers, calves, pigs, and sheep, besides com, hay, straw, 
and other things, and alleged that he was injured to the extent 
of £100. The abbot in person stated, in reply to the charge, 
that he ought not to be called upon to answer, inasmuch as 
Richard Avery was his villein, belonging to the Manor of 
Trusham, the property of his church of tlie Blessed Mary of 
Buckfast, and sought judgment accordingly. Richard said 
that he was a free man and not a villein, out the jury upon 
their oaths were satisfied that poor Richard was nativus^ and 
the abbot had judgment. This document therefore is valu- 
able, showing that at this time, 1358, the villein had no rights, 
at all events against the lord of the soil. Professor Stubbs 
eloquently describes the position of the nativus after the Con- 

• 01iTer*8 Monasticon, p. 371. 



quest, and shows that, although it may seem a hard one to us 
at this time, it had many advantages. " Under a fairly good 
lord, under a monastery or a college, the villein enjoyed im- 
munities and securities that might be envied by his superiors ; . 
he had a ready tribunal for his wrongs, a voice in the ma- 
nagement of his village ; he might with a little contrivance 
redeem his children and start them in a higher state of life. 
His lord had a peremptory claim on his earnings, but his 
lord had a lord, whose claims on him were as irresistible, if 
not as legally binding. He was excluded from juries and 
assizes touching property, but by that exemption he was freed 
from the risk of engaging in quarrels in which he would be 
crushed without pity by the more powerful neighbour against 
whom he might have to testify. If he was without political 
rights, so were also the great majority of his superiors."* 

Robtus Simon Abbas de Buckfestre attactius fuit ad res- At Exeter, 
pondend Rico Averay de ptito t^nsgr p billam Et undo idem 32 Ed in. 

4-».^. . '' * o^j'T- »- i. r~ -— Sept. 1368. 

Ricus m ppria psona sua quer* qd die Jovis px post tm sci ^ 

Dionig anno regni Reg E' nunc Angt tricesimo vi 1 armis 

videl? glad T:c apud Trussume bona 1 catalla ipsius Rici scilt 

tria Jumenta pcii quadraginta solido^ sex boves pcii quatuor 

librae quatuor vaccas pcii quadraginta solidorum duas Ju- 

ventas ^cii sexdecim solidoi duos bovettos pcii di m*rc tres 

vitulos ^cii sex solidox quinque porcos pcii qndecim solido^ 

nonaginta bidentes pcii sex libr % sexdecim solidorum cepit 

1; abduxit 1 quinq, q^'rSia fr septem quartia siligis quatuor 

quar?ia aven duodecim trusses de feno sexaginta trusses 

stramig quatuor coffr una caruca T: ij hcias de ferro T: viginti 

clayes p i fald ad valenciam decern librae cepit T; asportavit 



cont"" pacem Ic. unde dicit qd detioratus est T: dampnu het 
' valenciam centu libra*. Et inde pducit sectam. 
Et pdcus Robtus Abbas in pp^a psona sua venit T; dicit qd 



Et pdcus Robtus Abbas m pp'a psona sua venit t aicit qa 
pdcus Ricus responder non debet quia dicit qd idem Ricus 
est nativus ipsius Abbtis de Mafiia suo de Trussume Et idem 
Abbas T; pdecessores sui Abb!es loci pdci seiti fgerunt de ipso 
Rico 1 antecessoribus suis ut de nativis suis MaSii sui pdci de 
jure eccte sue be Marie de Bokfast 1 petit judiciu etc. Et . 
pdcus Ricus dicit qd ipse est liber homo ^ libe condicois T; non 
nativus ipsius Abbtis put idem Abbas v*sus eii ptitando allegat 
1 hoc petit qd inquiraf p priam. Et pdcus Robtus Abbas 
similiter. I'o prec est vie qd venire fac coram pfatis Justic hie 
die M^cur in prima septia quadragesime xxiiij*"" tam milites etc. 
Et qui nee etc. ad recogii T;c. Quia tam Ic. idem dies datus 

♦ Stubbs, Const. Hist, vol L p. 430. 



i 



/ 



78 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



DcTon. 



Devon. 



est ptibus pdeis etc. Ad quern diem coram Justic hie veB ptes 
^dce m ppriis psoms suis Et Jur ven qui de consensu Scfcoi 
Riea Averay 1 Rofeti Simon Abbtis ad hoc etci txiati { Ju? 
dicunt sup sacrm suum qd ?dcus Ricus Averay est nativus 
ipius Robti Simon Abbtis de maSio suo Sdco put idem Abbas 
supius allegat. To conS est qd ^dcus feicus*^nichil capet p 
billa sua set sit in mia p injusta queret sua Et Sdcus Ifcbtus 
Abbas quietus sine die. 

Mj 
Assize Roll. 1 8 Memb. 4'*. Devon 
34) 

113. In 1364, in the White Book of Tenures in Cornwall 

ZluT ^Vfc ^^"^ ^^ ^^^^''^'•^' «^ * *»« «f wine to the 
Abbot of Buckfast. The Carmelites of Plymouth at the 
same time obtained five tuns. I have printed this elsewhere.* 

114. In 1366 there was a dispute with the Vicar of 
Harberton, and in 1367 the abbot had occasion to take pro- 
ceedings against John Prestcote and Matthew Kellv, who 
had destroyed trees to the value of ten pounds. 

a^f^^n^Jl"^ f * ^^.^L^^ B,?«kfasV ^"^^ ^ ^«^^™ Wonard 
art suum 1 Galfro vicar ecctie de Huberton p Johem Wilbv 
attsuude ptito t^ns^r hie a die see Trinitat^in xv dirs £ 

m.'42T)^ ^ ^^"'' ^^"' ^^ ^^^^^^ in. h'LvJ' 

Abbas de Bukfast p Johem Prestecote attorn suu op se 
iiij»» die 9sus Ricm Isshelegh 1 Matheu Kellygh de ptito 
quare vi 1 armis arbores ipius Abbis ad valen? decc liC 
JP'^'^T.PS^^* °"P ^re^^'^? combusserunt 1 alia enoS 
Ic Et iDi non ven et pdcus Ricus fuit attach p Johem uXl 
Johem liert Po ipi in mia Et Jc est vie qd dist? eum p omnes 
ri-aslc.et qd de excitib^lc. £ qd heat corpus emThl aZ 
Pasche m tres septias ^ Justie Ic. et de ^dL MaAeo m W 
vie qd nichil het Ic. Po ?e est vie qd ca/eum si Ic etTaTvo 
Ic. Ita qd heat corpus eius hie ad ^fatum ?min Ic me 
Banco Roll, Hilary, 42 Edward III. m. 163d.) ^ 

115. The next document is from Rymer's Fcedem. Tf 
must not be supposed that John Beaumont was the Abbot of 
Bucyast m 1372^ Doubtless this proclamation wasTssued Tn 
the time of trouble following the victorv of f !,«%!!! • i 
over the English off Rochell| when te^Eafl S ptee' 
the son-m-law of the King, was taken prisoner. ^''"^'^^^' 

• Ecclesiastical Hiat. Old Pljmontli, Appendix, p. 88. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



79 




De hominibus ad arma in comitatu Devon* arraiandis. 



A.D. 1372. 
46 Edw. III. 



} Rex venerabili in Christo patri Thomae, 
' eadem gratia episcopo Exon' ac dilectis 
R0I. Franc. 1 et fidelibus suis Hugoni de Courtenay 

?nWLond°'*^^'i °^™i*^ Devon', Johanni de Cheverston, 

Theobaldi Greneville, Ricardo de Stapuldon, 
Johanni Beaumond abbati de Bukfast, Johanni Daumarle, 
Willielmo de Bykebury, et Martino Ferrers, salutem. 

Sciatis quod nos, de fidelitate et circumspectione vestris 
plenius confidentes, assignavimus vos, conjunctim et divisim, 
ad omnes homines defensabiles comitatus Devon', infra 
libertates et extra, exceptis nominibus, qui nobiscum in 
obsequium nostrum sunt profecturi, cum omni festatione 
arrairi, et ipsos, videlicet, quemlibet eorum juxta statum et 
facultates suas, armis competentibus muniri, faciendum : et 
ad ipsos, sic arraiatos et numitos, videlicet, illos qui terras vel 
tenementa juxta costeram maris habent, ad morandum super 
eisdem terris continue cum tota familia sua, et alios, terras et 
tenementa super costeram praedictam non habentes, juxta 
praemunitionem vestram, et cujuslibet vestrum ad costeram 
praedictam quociens necesse fiierit, et periculum aliquod 
iminuerit, viis et modis quibus melius expedire videritis, 
venire compellandum, ibidem quamdiu indiguerit super salva 
custodia terras maritimae continue moraturos, ad resistendum 
malitiae inimicorum nostrorum, si qui regnum nostrum 
invadere praesumpserint. 

Et ad omnes illos, quos in hac parte contraries inveneritis 
seu rebelles, arestandum, et prisonis nostris mancipandum, in 
eisdem moraturos, quousque de eorum punitione aliter 
duxerimus ordinandum. 

Et ide6 vobis et cuilibet vestrum distiictius quo poterimus, 
mandamus, firmiter injungentes, quod circa praemissa, 
omnibus aliis praetermissis, cum omni diligentia et solicitudine 
quibus poteritis, effectualiter intendatis, et ea faciatis et 
exequamini in forma praedicta : et vos ipsi et qualibet vestrum 
ad terras et tenementa vestra, costerae praedictae propinquiora, 
cum omni festinatione vos trahatis, ibidem super salva 
custodia terrae maritimae, cum tota familia vestra continue 
moraturi. 

Damus autem vicecomiti nostro comitatiis prajdicti, ac 
universis et singulis aliis fidelibus nostris comitatus praedicti, 
tam infra libertates quam extra, tenore praesentium in 
mandatis, quod vobis, et cuilibet vestrum in praemissis 



I * 



-'■ 



i» * 



Oh m 



80 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Devon. 



pareant, obediant et intendant, quociens et quando per vos, 
seu aliquem vestrum, super hoc ex parte nostrd fuerint 
praemuniti. 

In cujus, 

Teste Rege, apud Westm' xx die Jiilii . 

Per ipsum Regem et consilium. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, vol. iii. p. 2, p. 956, ed. 1830.] 

116. In the Year Book, 50 Edward III. 1375, is 
mentioned the case of the Abbot of Bukfast versus the Dean 
and Chapter of Exeter, John Wyllyot, and Robert Davy 
[see ff. 10b and 11], and in the Liber Assisarum, 47 Edw. 
III., the Dean and Chapter of Exeter and John Wiliot, 
clerk, were attached to answer to Robert, abbot of Bukfast, 
of the plea, " quare ipsi cum Thomas Bail de Staverton, etc. 
injuste & sine judicio levaverunt quondam gurgitem in 
Staverton ad nocument' liberi ten' sui in Bukfast post 
primam, &c" The abbot used to take fish to the value of 
40/. per annum, and now cannot take more than to the value 
of lOs. a-year. Arguments upon verbal omissions and 
technicalities followed, but nothing apparently was done. 
The last words are " Et sur ceo adjornatur." 

117. The following relate probably to the same matter, and 
are taken from the De Banco Roll : — 

Jur*in?Abbem de Bukfast que? l Rofctm Sumpter Decanii 
ecctie beati Petri Exoii 1 Capitulum eiusde ecctie 1 Johem 
Wyliet cticum de eo si pdcus Abbas pendente bri suo vsus 
ipos Decanu 1 Capitulu T; Johem impetrato supponendo qd 
ipi siml cum Thoma Baillyf de Stav'ton iniuste \ sine indico 
levaverunt quondam gurgitem in Stav^toii ad nocumentu libi 
ten ipius Abbis in Bukfast pstravit gurgitem pdcm p quod 
idem Abbas bre suu vl?ius v'sus pdcm Johm manutenere non 
debet sicut idem Johes dicit vel non sicut ^dcus Abbas dicit 
Et eciam si die irapetracois bris ^dci Abbis scitt decimo die 
Nov anno regni Regis nunc Angt quadragesimo pdci Decanus 
1 Capitulu fuerunt tenentes vt de libo ten soli in Stanton vbi 
supponit* nocumentu pdcra fieri ad nocumentu libi ten pdci 
Abbis in Buckfast p qd ipi vt tenentes soli illius ad excepcoem 
allegand in Cassacoem bris pdci admitti debeant sicut ijdem 
Decanus 1 Capitulu Dicunt vel non Immo pdco die impe- 
tracois bris pfat Johes Willyet fuit tenens eiusdem soli vt de 
libo ten sicut pdcus Abbas dicit ponit"^ in respcm hie vsq^ a 
die Pasche in xv dies nisi Justic dni Regis ad assias in com 
pdco capiend assign |j forma statuti etc. die M^cur px post ftn 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



81 



§ci Mathie Apli apud Exon prius veSint p defcu Jur quia 
nullus ven. I'o vie heat corpa etc. — (De Banco Roll, 48 Edw. 
III., Hilary m. 169 d.) 

Jur=^ in? Johem Welyet quer 1 Robtm Abbem de Bukfast Devon. 
T; fratre Johem Skyredoh from Radm Middelworthy f rem 
Rohm Cok* T: frem Walterum Morchard cdmonac eiusde 
Abbis de ptito t^nsgr ponit"' in respectu hie vsq3 a die Pasche 
in tres septias p Justic nisi Justic dni Reg ad asSias in coin 
pdco capiend assign p forma statuti etc. die Mercur px post 
festu sci Mathie Apli apud Exoh prius veSint p defcu Jur 
quia nullus ven. I'o vie heat corpa etc. Ad que die veh ptes 
etc. Et vie non mi§ bre. I'o Jur" pdca ponit"" in respcm hie 
vsq3 a die see Trinitatis in xv dies p defcu Jur quia nullus 
ven. I'o vie heat corpa Ic. Ad que die * * 



Further put in respite to Michaelmas, then to Hilary. 
(Apparently here the Record stops, but the writing is so bad, 
small, and close, that it is difficult to say positively). — Ibid. 
m. 263. 

118. In 1377 we again find Abbot Robert in legal mire, 
prosecuting James Audeley for interfering with the river 
Dart and the fishery at Dartiugton, Staverton, and Little 
Hempston. No decision upon the case can be found. It is 
repeated de novo in subsequent Rolls. 

Jacobus de Audele Chivliler sum fuit ad respondend Robto Devon 
Abbti de Bukfast de ptito quare ipe injuste T: sine judicio 
levavit sex gurgites in Dertyngtoii Staverton T; Hemmestoii 
Arondel ad nocumentu libi ten ipius Abbtis in Bukfast % 
Ayshpertoii post p"'m Ic Et undo idem Abbas p Thomam 
Spyrweye attorn suu die qd ubi idem Abbas het T; here debet 
ipeqj 1; omes pdecessores sui Abbtes loci pdci a tempo quo non 
extat memoria huerunt in villis de Bukfast T; Ayshpertoii in 
quadam aqua vocata Derte quondam gurgitem de quo quidem 
gurgite pdca aqua de Derte currit usq} ad pdcas villas de 
Dertyngtoii Staverton Hemmestoii Arondel 't a pdcis villis 
usq3 ad altum mare extra portum de Dertemouthe de quo 
gurgite idem Abbas here debet ipeq3 T: omes pdecessores sui 
Abbtes ejusdem loci a tempe cuj^ cont"^rii memoria non existit 
huerunt quandam aperturam latitudinis sex pedu in aqua 

Elsewhere (in previous Bolls) Cooke. 






I 



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82 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



83 



pdca in medio majoris cursus 1 pfundita? ejusdem aque in 
omib} locis T; dfiiis int pdcas villas de Bukfast T; Ayslipertoii 
T: altu mare extra portfi pdcra ex quacumqj pte ubi majore 
cursu 1 pfundita? ejusdem aque in alneo suo fore contig^it p 
(|uam quidem apturam salraones trutes peles 1 alii pisces 
maris natare solebant T; potuerunt ab alto mari extra portii 
pdem usa ad gur^ite ipius Abbtis 8up"'dcam pdcus Jacobus 
levavit pel cos sex gurgites ex f^nsvso ejusdem Aque % pdce 
apture in eadem aqua de Derte in pdcis villis de Dertyngtoii 
Stavertoii T; Hemmeston Arondel int gurgite ipius Abbtis 
pdcm T: altu mare 1; portii sup""dcm p quos quidem gurgites 
in eisdem villis de Dertyngtoii Stavertofi T; Hemmeston 
Arondel sic levat aptura pdca est obstructa ita qd pisces Ic 
natare non possunt ab alto mari usq^ ad gurgitem ipius Abbtis 
pdcm sicut solebant p quod ubi ipe Abbas solebat T: potuit 
cape pisces in gurgite suo pdco ad valenciam quadraginta 
librarx p annii ante levacoemT; obstruccoem sup^lcasT; modo 
non potest cape pisces nisi ad valenc decem solidox p annii 
et sic ad nocumentu etc. unde die qcf deter est It dampnu het 
ad valenc mille libra^ Et inde pduc sectam etc. 

Et pdcus Jacobus p Johem Bozoun atl suu ven Et pet 
indo visu heat T: Dies datus est eis hie a die sci Michis in xv 
dies p Justic Et int^im Ic. 

De Banco Roll, Trinity, 

Ric. II. m. 210. 

119. In 1377 a brief somewhat similar to the one before 
mentioned (par. 115) from the King and his Council, is 
directed among others to the Abbot of Buckfast 

De MORA facienda; super invasion e Gallicorum. 

} Rex venerabili in Christo patri Th. eadem 
^ gratia episcopo Exoniae, salutem. Quia 
I pro certo intelleximus quod inimici nostri 
J Franciae, et alii sibi adhaerentes, magnam 
multitudinem navium gallarum, et barge- 
arum, cum homnibus ad arnia et armatis, congregarunt, et 
infra regnum nostrum Angliae, ad citiiis quo poterunt, ap- 
plicare, et nos, et dictum regnum nostrum, ac totam linguam 
Anglicanam destruere et delere proponunt, nisi eorum 
malitiae manu forti resistatur : 

Nos volentes hujusmodi dampnis et periculis, quae nobis et 
dicto regno nostro, ex subitis dictorum iniinicorum nostrorum 
aggressibus evenire possent praecavere, vobis, districtius quo 



A.D. 1377. 
51 Edw. III. 

Rot. Clans. 

.51 Edw. III. m. 8 

in Turr. Lond. 



T 



1 



poterimus, firmiter injungendo mandamus, quod vos, cum omni 
festinatione, ad terras et tenementa vestra, villas de Dart- 
mouth propinquius adjacentia, personaliter divertatis, ibidem, 
cum hominibus vestris, et tota familia vestra, fortiori modo 
quo poteritis, super defeusione villae praedictae, et partium 
adjacentium, contra hostiles agressus, continue moraturi. 

Et homines et tenentes vestros ibidem, videlicet, quemlibet 
eorum juxta statum et facultates sues, arraiari, et moram 
continuam ibidem, fortiori modo quo poterunt, hujusmodi 
periculis iminentibus, facere, et ipsos ad hoc celeriter facien- 
dum, per districtiones honor uni et catallorum suorum, et alios 
vias et modes quibus poteritis, compelli et distringi faciatis 
indilate ; et hoc, sub periculo quod incumbit, nullatenus 
omittatis. 

Teste Rege, apud West'm xiv die Maii. Per ipsum 
Regem et consilium. (Rymer's Foedera, vol. iii., part 2, 
p. 1078, ed. 1830. 

120. In the following extract, 1378, the abbot seeks to 
recover from John Suddon and Margaret his wife a mes- 
suage and land in Petrockstowe, which Robert Goding held 
of. William Giffard, the former abbot, and which the then 
abbot claimed, as reverting to the Abbey on the death of 
Goding. 

Robtus Abbas de Bukfast petit vsus Johem Suddon ? Devon. 
Mar^iam uxem ejus unu ferlingu tre *? tres acras pti cu ptin 
in Petrokystowe que Robtus Godyng^ tenuit de Wilto memb. 289 d. 
Giffard nup Abbe de Bukfast pdecessore nunc Abbis et que 
ad ipm nunc Abbem revti debent tanq""m escaeta ^ua eo qd 
pdcus Robtus Godyng^ obiit sine her %. Et unde idem Abbas 
p Thoma Spirwey att suu dicit qd pdcus Robtus Godyng^ 
fuit seit^ de ten pdcis cu ptin in dnico §uo ut de feodo *? Jure 
tempe pacis tempo dni E nup Reg Angt Avi dni RegC nunc 
capiend inde explec ad valenc ?c. It ea tenuit de pdco Witto 
pdco ?c. p homag J fidelit *? scutagiu dni Reg^ cu accederit 
ad quadraginta solidos decern solid qn ad plus plus qn ad 
minus minus 7c. t p 3vicia sex solidoi p ainiu ad quatuor 
anni tmios principales solvend, vidett ad festa sci Michis 
Natat Dfii Pasch ? Natat sci Johis Bapl de quib} Sviciis idem 
pdecessor 7c., fuit seit^ ut in jure ecctie sue see Marie de 
Bukfast [blank] p manus pdci Robti Godyng ut p manus 
veri tenentis sui vidett de pdcis homag 7 fidelil ut de feodo 7 
Jur 7 de pdco redditu in diiico suo ut de feed o *? Jure Et que 
ad pdcm nunc Abbem reverti debent tanq""m eschaeta sua eo 

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THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCK FAST ABBEY. 



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in. 175cl. 



qd etc. Et inde pducit secta etc. Et pdci Johes t Margeria 
p Johem Coplestoii a'tt suu vefi Et defend Jus suu quando 
etc. Et dicunt qd ipi nichil hent in ten pdcis nisi ex 
dimissione Johis Hopere ad vita ipojj Johis Suddoii 1 
Marg'ie tantu rev^sione inde ad ^dcm Johem Hopere t her 
suos spectante sine quo non possunt pdco A^i inde res- 
pondere It petunt auxiliu de ipo Johe Hopere heant eu 
hie in Crastino sci Martini etc. Idem dies dat^ est Sdcis 
ptibj p attorii suos pdcos hie *?c. ad que diem pdcus Johes 
Hoper sum fecit se esson de malo veniend v'sus pdcm 
Abbem *? de pdco ptito et huit inde die p Esson suu hie ad 
hunc die scitt a die Pasche in tres septias extunc px seqn 
put patet rotlo Esson sexto Idem dies dat^ fuit ptib} Jdcis 
hie *fc. Et modo ad hunc die ven tam ptes pdce p attorii 
suos pdcos q'^m pdcus Johes Hoper p Johem Coplestoii 
attorn suu vefi Et idem Johes Hoper se jungit pdcis Johi 
Suddoii *? Margie iii respondend Vsus pdcm Abbem de pdco 
ptito etc. [Hereupon a day was given to the parties, as well 
y* Abbot as John Suddon or Margery and John Hoper, now 
joined, from Michaelmas to fifteen days ; at which day come 
the parties aforesaid from Hilary to fifteen days ; at which 
day come the parties aforesaid from Trinity to fifteen days ; 
at which day come the parties aforesaid to the morrow of St. 
Martin ; at which day come the parties aforesaid from 
Easter to three weeks] in statu quo nunc salvis ptib) etc. 

De Banco Roll, Trinity, 1 and 2 Ric. 11. 

Here, too, the termination of the case does not apf>ear on 
the Rolls. For some reason or other it would seem to have 
been dropped, a compromise being effected, or one of the 
parties not being sure of his success, allowing the other to 
take or retain possession of the land in dispute. 

122. The next extract I have during Abbot Simon s time 
relates to his claim against Walter Rosere and William 
Buriman, whom he charged with carrying off his villeins, 
Christina Barry and John Barry, of Downe St. Mary, and 
the abbot claimed that he was injured to the extent of 20Z. 

Abbas de Bukfast p Johem Lacche at? suu op se iiij*° die 
9su8 Walrum Rosere J Wittm Buriman de ptito quare vi J 
armis Cristina Barry ? Joham Barry nativas ipius Abbis in 
3vico suo apud Sejmtemarydoune existentes cepunt ? abdux- 
erunt p quod idem Abbas 3viciu nativaa suax pdcax p 
magnu tempus amisit 1 alia enorma 1c. ad dampnu ipius 



|# 



Abfeis viginti librai 7 con"^ pace dni E' nup Regis Angl 
avi 1c. Et ipi non veii Et pc fuit vie qd capet eos Et vie 
nichil inde fecit nee bre misit I'o sicut prius capiant"^ qd sint 
hie a die sci Michis in xv dies p Justic. 

De Banco Roll, 8 Rich. 11. Trinity [1384]. 

123. In the next, of the date 1393, the abbot is the defen- 
dant, being called upon by William Beaumont to deliver to 
him a box, with writings and documents in it. It appears 
that the box, with its contents sealed up, was handed by John 
Beaumont the father of the claimant in his lifetime to John 
Warre, Episcopus Cumogensi, [? Le Mans] and that on the 
death of John Beaumont the same should have been handed 
to the son. And afterwards the bishop died at the Abbey of 
Buckfast, and the box with its contents came into the posses- 
sion of the abbot, who would not give it up, by which William, 
the heir of John Beaumont, was much injured, and claimed 
redress and satisfaction. The bishop appeared by his attorney 
John Lack, to whom he must have been a good client, 
admitted having the box, and in effect stated that he was 
only desirous of doing what was right with it. He produced 
it in open court, and said that he had received it from the 
deceased bishop to take care of; that there was another 
claimant for the box, a certain John Brightricheston, and 
which was the right owner he did not know ; and asked that 
John Brightricheston might be protected. The court thought 
it necessary under these circumstances to give John an oppor- 
tunity of proving his right, and a day was fixed for him to 
appear. On the day named he did not come, and eventually 
the box with the deeds and muniments were handed over to 
the first claimant, the plaintiff William Beaumont. Here we 
have, among other interesting matter, the apparent fact that 
an Englishman was a bishop of a foreign see, if Le Mans is 
meant, and that he died, and was probably buried, at Buck- 
fast Abbey. 

FoUowing this are three other extracts from the same roll, 
relating to litigation initiated by the abbot in respect of tres- 
pass committed on the abbey lands. 

Robtus Abbas de Bukfestrie sum fuit ad respondend Witto Devon. 
Beaumount de ptito qd reddat ei quandam pixidem cu cartis 
scriptis 1 aliis munimentis in eadem pixide contentis quam ei 
iniuste detinet ?c. Et vnde idem Witts d Thomam Hertescote 
attorn suu die qd cu quidam Johes Beaumount pat ipius 
Witti cuius her ipe est die lune px post fm §ci Andr apli anno 



i \ 



86 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



regno^ dni Regis nunc quarto apud Exon libasset cuidara 
Johi Warre Epo Cumogensi* pixidem pdcam sigillatam cum 
cartis scriptis 1 alijs munimentis eta ¥ras 1 ten que eidem 
Witto post mortem pdei Johis Jure hereditar descenderunt 
tangencia in eadem pixide contentis salvo custodiend et eidem 
Jolli vel her suis cu inde requisitus fuisset relifeand Ac 
postmodum pdcus Epus in Abbia Bukfesrie obijt post cuius 
mortem pixis ^dca cu cartis etc. ad manus pdci Abbis deve- 
nerunt. Idem tamen Abbas licet sepius requisitus pixidem 
^dcam pdco Johi Beaumount in vita sua nee eciam eidem 
Witto fit 1 her pdci Johis Beaumount nondu libavit set illas 
ei hucusq3 libare cont"'dixit T; adhuc cont*^dicit vnde die qd 
deVioratus est T; dampnum het ad valenciam centu libra^. 
Et inde pduc sectam Ic. 

Et pdcus Abbas p Johem Lacche attorn suu vefi Et pfert 
hie in cur pixidem f/dcam cu cartis ?c. patani ad reddend cui 
cur Regis hie considerav'it die qd pixis ilia cu cartis 7c. p 
pfatu Epm eidem Abbi libatu fuit salvo custodiend et cui de 
Jure libari debet deliband Et die qd quidam Johes 
Brightricheston clam pixidem pdcam cu cartis %. eidem 
Johi Brightricheston de Jure libari debe set an pixis pdca cu 
cartis %. ^dco Johi Brightricheston an pfato Witto de Jure 
libari debeat nee ne die qd ipe omio ignorat Et pet qd 
^dcus Johes Brightricheston j^inuniatur tc. To prec est vie 
qd jD pbos Jc. scire fac pfato Johi Brightricheston qd sit hie 
in Octab §ci Michis osten§ si quid p se heat vel diee sciat 
quare pixis pdca cu cartis ?c. fJfato Witto libari non debeat 
si ?c. Idem dies datus est ptib} pdcis hie %. Ad quem 
diem ven tam pdcus Wittus q*m pdcus Abbas p attorn suos 
• pdcos Et pdcus Johes Brightricheston iiij'o die ptiti 

solempniter exactus non veh Et vie modo mand qd scire 
fecit eidem- Johi Brightricheston essend hie ad hunc diem 
ostenS in forma pdca p Nichm More Johem Tonne 1 Robm 
Feryby I'o oon§ est qd pdcus Wittus heat libacoem pixidis 
pdce cum cartis etc. extra possessione pdci Abbis Et sup hoc 
pdcus Abbas pfett hie in cur pdcam pixide cum cartis 7c. 
parata ad recldend pfato Witto quequidem pixis cu cartis 
etc. pfato Witto hie in cur liberat"" I'o idem abbas de eadem 
pixide cu cartis 7c. exoSet"' 7c. — De Banco Roll, 17 Rich. 
II. Trinity. 

I>evon. Robtus Abbas de Bukfast 1 frater Edwardus Stele 1 frater 

memb. 176 d. Henr Haredon 1 frater Robtus Asshe 1 frater Stephus 

• ? for le Mans in France. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



87 



Roulande comonacos eiusdem Abbis 7 Ricus Roke in iiiia p 
plur defalt. 

Dies dat^ est Johanne que fuit px^ Johis Jaycok que? p 
Johem Jaycok attorri suu Et pdcis Abbi Edwardo Henr 
Robte Stepho 7 Rico p Johem Lacche attorii suu de ptito 
t*nsgr hie in Octab sci Hillar pcepcium sine essoii etc ad que 
die ven ptes pdce 7c. Et sup hoc dies datus est eis hie a die 
Pasche in tres septias pee pciu sine essofi 7c. 

Mem.— On this Roll (230 d.) Robert, Abbot of B. v. 
' ** Joham que fuit vxor Johis Jaycok" who " clausa fregit" 
and cut down the abbot's trees, depastured lands, &c. She 
does not come. Sheriff ordered to distrain her through all, 
&c., and have her body here from Hilary to fifteen days. No 
-writ. Order for Easter as before. — Ibid. 1 8 Rich. II. Mich. 

The next two extracts refer, one to a defaulting bailiff of 
the Abbey at Battochsburgh, who was not to be found, and 
the second, to a claim for the recovery of land and houses at 
Buckfastleigh. 

Robtus Abbas de Bukfast p Johem Lacche attorn suum op' Devon' 
se iiij'° die vsus Johem Weryng de South lodebroke de pHto 
qd reddat ei ronabilem compotu suu de tempo quo fuit ballivus 
suus in Battokysburgh 7 receptor denario^ ipius Abbis Et 
ipe non ven Et pcept fuit vie qd capet eu Et vie modo mand 
qd non est invenl 7c. I'o peep? est vie qd capiat eu si 7c. Et 
salvo 7c. Ita qd heat corpus eius hie in Octabis §ci Hillar 7c. 
— De Banco Roll, 18 Rich. II. Mich. m. 250. 

Abbas de Bukfast p Johem Lacche attorn suu pe? v*sus Devon' 
Johnam Jaycok T: Waltum Deghere vnu toftum cum ptin in 
Bukfastlegh Et vsus Johnam que fuit vxor Johis Jaycok 
septem mesuag duas acr trc T; vnam acr p*ti et dimid cum 
ptin in eadem villa Et vsus Waltum Deghere de Bukfastlegh 
duo mesuag vnam acr rre T; dimid T; vnam acr p"ti cum ptiii 
in eadem villa vt Jus T;c. p bre Regis de forma donacois T:c. 
Et pdci Johna Jaycok WaT?us Deghere Johna que fuit vxor 
Johis Jaycok T; WalSus Deghere de Bukfastlegh p Johem 
Jaycok attorn suu ven Et sepatim petunt inde visum heant 
Ic. dies da? est eis hlc a die rasche in quinq^ septimanus Et 
inrim l.c.-f-lbid, m. 333 d. 

124. I have not been able to find any account of the case 
referred to by Dr. Oliver which he calls the valuable cause of 
the fishery of the River Dart at Buckfastleigh against the 
Dean and Chapter at Exeter, but only a short reference to it. 



4 






■ * ■ 



88 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



In Hilary term, 1376, a verdict having already been given 
in favour of the Abbey, apparently at the assizes, the matter 
came before the Court of Common Pleas on demurrer. Davy, 
one of the defendants, had never once appeared. The words 
showing the finding are " Sur que quant a les auters " [Davy 
not having appeared] " qui averont pled' al enquest trove fuit 
p' nisi prius que le Dean & le Chapitre n'averont reens en le 
frank tenement, & auxi Tabbot n'avera abatu le Gorce pen- 
dant le bre, coe." 

125. While hunting for the Dart case another important 
fishery case turned up, which is very fully set out in the De 
Banco Roll. It is too long to produce at length, but a friend 
who has helped me in transcribing documents for the 
purposes of this paper has prepared a full abstract of the 
proceedings. The dispute arose as to the right of fishery in 
the Brent River, the Avon, and the action was brought by 
the abbot, still Robert Simons, against Richard Knight, 
Vicar of Brent, and others. The case was tried, apparently, 
at Exeter, when a verdict was given in favour of the abbot. 
There was an appeal, and the verdict was reversed on technical 
grounds. I have given the judgment and some other parts 
of the proceedings as they appear on the Roll. 

The King (Richard II.) issued a AVrit of Mandamus to 
Walter Clopton and the Justices of the King's Bench, dated 
at Westm., 8 June, 22 R. 2 (1399) ; whereby he directed that 
Buckfast. the record and process relating to a plea of trespass between 
Robert, late Abbot of Buckfast, and Robert Knyght, Vicar 
of the Church of Brent, John Beare [and others as herein- 
after], &c., being seen by them, a manifest error committed 
(as alleged) by the Justices of Common Pleas should be cor- 
rected. The Record and process mention in the said writ as 
follows : — 

Attorn recep! apud Westm coram ♦ ♦ * Justic Mi 
Reg de coi Banco de Vmio Hillar Anno regni Reg Rici scdi 

quartodecimo. t *. ir t k 

Devon'. Robtus Knyght vicar ecctie de Brente Johes tlox Jones 
Beare Witts ffenford Witts Pitman Witts Langedon Johes 
Langedon Wal?us Schaghe 1 Thomas Schaghe po lo suo 
Thomam Reymound vel Thomam Noreys vsus Robtm abbem 
de Bukfas? de pHto t""nsgr. , , ^ « ~ 

Ptita apud Westm coram Robto de Cherlton 1 soc suis 
Justic Dili Regis de Banco de T*lmio see Trinitatis anno regni 
Reg Rici scdi quintodecimo. Ro. cccvj. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



89 



Robtus Knyght vicar ecctie de Brente Johes ffox Johes Dev 
Beare Witts ff'enford Witts Pitman Johes Langedofi t Waltus 
Schage attach fuerunt ad respondend Robto Abbti de Bukfast 
de ptito quare ipi cu Witto Langedon i Johe Shaghe vi t 
armis clau§ ipius Abbis apud Brenta freg^unt i arbores suas 
ibm nup crescentes succiderunt t in sepal i piscar sua ibm 
piscati fuerunt t piscem inde ac arbores ^dcas necnon alia 
bona t catalla sua ad valenc viginti libra^ ac quingentos 
cuniclos sues pcij centum solido^ ibm inventa ceperunt et 
asportaverunt i blada t herbam suam ad valenc centu solido^ 
ibm nup crescencia cum quibusdani averijs depasti fuerunt 
conculcaverunt T: consumpserunt i alta enormia ei intulerunt 
ad grave Dampnum ipsius Abbis t cont"" pacem Regis Et 
vnde idem Abbas p Johem Lacche attorn suu querit qd pdci 
Robtus Knyght Johes t Johes Witts Witts Johes t Wal?us 
siml etc. die Jovis px post festu oim sco^ anno regno^ dni 
Reg nunc nono vi i armis scitt glad archub^ t sagittis claus 
ipius Abbis apud Brenta fre^unt % arbores suas vidett quadra- 
ginta quercus viginti fraxinos decern ulnos decem tremulos t 
viginti fabos ibm nup crescentes succiderunt t in sepali 
piscaria sua ibm piscati fuerunt t piscem inde vidett quadra- 
ginta salmones lupos aquaticos percheas tencheas anguillas i 
pelos ac arbores pdcas necnon alia bona t catalla sua vidett 
pannos lineos i laneos ad valenc viginti libra^ ac quingentos 
cuniclos sues pcij centum solido^ ibm inventos ceperunt J 
asportaverunt i blada vidett frumentu ordeu fabas pisas t 
avenas t herbam suam ad valenc etc. ibm nup crescenc cu 
quibusd a9ijs vidett equis bob} vaccis affris bidentibus t 
porcis depasti fuerunt conculaverunt t consumpserunt t'^nsgr 
pdcam quoad succisionem arbo^ piscacoem % depastu blado^ 
t herbe p duos aniios tunc px seqn diversis vicibus continu- 
andi et alia enormia etc. Et cent"' pacem etc. vnde die qd 
deter est i dampnu het ad valenc centu libra^ t inde pduc 
sectam etc. Et Sdci Robtus Knyght Johes ffox Johes Beare 
Witts ffenford Witts Pitman Johes Langedon t Wal?us p 
Thomam Norreys Attorri suu ven t defend vim t injur quando 
etc. Et quo ad venire vi t armis necnon fraccoem clausi 
succisione arbox ac asportacoem bono^ t catallo^ die qd ipi in 
nullo sunt inde culpables et de hoc poii se sup priam Et 
pdcus Abbas simitr. Et eciam pdcus Johes ffox t ofhos alij 
p? pdcm Robtm Knight quoad capcoem cuniclo^ die sili? qd 
ipi in nullo sunt inde culpables Et eciam idm Robtus Knight 
quoad depastu bladox t herbe pdco^ die qd ipe in nullo est 
inde culpabit Et inde sopatim pon se sup priam Et f^dcus 
Abbas simili? et quoad piscacoem etc. ^fatus Robtus Knyght - 

N 



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90 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



91 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



die qd quidam Witts Gybbe circa fm Oim scox Anno re^iox 
dni Regis nunc sexto cepit de pfato Abbe ad vsii ipius liobti 
t ^dci Witti Gybbe ac quondam Johis Erode t \^ itti fFylyp 
piscariam pdcam tenend ad voluntatera ic. ad piscand in 
eadm p voluntate sua. Et die qd idm Robtus occupavit 
piscariam pdcam i in eadm pisca? fuit absq) hoc qd ipe 
aliquo alio tempe in eadm piscaria pisca? fiiit et pdcus Johes 
fFox t omes alij defend die qd ipi vener in auxiliu ipius Robti 
ad piscand in piscaria pdca pdcis Annis sexto t septinio absq} 
hoc qd ipe [aliquo] alio tempe in eadm piscar piscat fuerunt 
Et hoc pati sunt sepatim vriheare vnde singillatim non intend 
aliquam Iniur in psonis suis ea de causa assignari posse tc. 
Et quo ad capcoem cuniclox etc. Robtus Knyght die qd ipe 
fuit capettus ^dci Abbis i cu eodm Abbe comorabat"" i p 
pceptii pdci Abbis Annis regno^ dni Regis nunc scdo t l^eio 
cepit duos cuniclos ad vsu eiusdm Abbis ibm i eos eidm Abbi 
aft'erebat t libavit absq} hoc qd ipe aliquo modo aliquos 
cuniclos ibm cepit Et hoc patus est vificare vnde non intend 
aliquam iniur in hac pte in psona sua assignari posse jc. Et 
pdcus Joties ffox t omes alij defendentes p? pdcm Robtm 
Knyght quo ad depastii blado^ j bbe etc. die qcl divsis vicib) 
p tempus in narracoe pdcis Abbis content div'sa avia sua in 
bladis 1 herba pdci Abbis capta i impcata fuerunt i in divsis 
cur eiusdm Abbis p idm tempus ibm p t^'nsgr illis que sunt 
eadm t'^'nsgr vnde idm Abbas querit"' amciati i afforati fue- 
runt t amciamenta ilia eidm Abbi de tempe in tempus sepatim 
solverunt t sic die qd pdco Abbi p dampno p ipos in bladis i 
herba eiusdm Abbis vnde idm Abbas modo querit"' in foi-ma 
pdca satisfcm existit vnde non intend qd ipi occone ilia i?um 
molestari seu g*vari debeant etc. Et pdcus Abbas die qd Sdci 
Robtus Knyght Johes ffox Jobes Beare Witts ffenford Witts 
Pitman Joties Langeton i Walrus vi t armis t de iniur sua 
ppria p tempus in narracoe eiusdm Abbis content in sepali 
piscar ipius Abbis apud Brente piscati fuerunt t piscem inde 
ceperunt t asportaver cont"^ pacem Reg put p querelam ipius 
Abbis supponit**" Et hoc pe? qd inquirat"" p priam. Et pdcus 
Robtus Knyght t omes alij defendentes qui modo comparent 
slli? Et eciam idm Abbas die qd Robtus Knyght p tempus 
in narracoe ipius Abbis specificat vi t armis t de miur sua 
ppria % cont"^ pacem Beg cepit quingentos cuniclos sues ibm 
put idem Abbas querit"' Et hoc simili? pet qd inquirat"^ p 
priam Et pdcus Robtus Knyght simitr Et quo ad depastii 
blado^ "* herbe pdco^ idm Abbas die qd pdci Jofces ffox Jobes 
Beare Witts ffenford Witts Pitman Johes Langedon j Wal^'us 
blada t herbam sua pdca p tempus in narracoe eiusdm Abbis 



content depast fuer cont"- pacem Reg absq3 hoc qd ijdm 
Johes ffox Johes Beare Witts ff'enford Witts Pitman Jobes 
Lano-edon i Wal?us p t^^nsgr illis adciati i afferati fuerunt 
vel eidm Abbi inde p eisdm f^nsgr satisfecerunt Et boc pet 
qd inquirat"^ p priam Et Pdci Johes ffox Jobes Beare AVitts 
ffenford Witts Pitman Jobes Langedon t Waltussilit. 1 o pr 
est vie qd venire fac hie a die sci Micbis in xv dies xij etc. 
p quos etc. et qui nee etc. Ad recogn etc. Quia tam etc. 

Afterwards the jury being placed in respite at York from 
Micbmasday to three weeks IG R. II. unless the justices, &c. 
come before to Exeter, &(i. Afterwards on the day and at 
the place before Wm. Rykhill and Wm. Brenchell Justices 
assio-ned &c. in Co. Devon, come as well Robt Abbot of B as 
Rob*t Knyght, John Fox, John Beare, Wm. Fenford, AVm. 
Pitman, John Langedon, and Walt. Shaghe by y"-^ att. And 
likewise the Jurors who &c. say on their oath That ye s^^ John 
Fox, Wm. P. and John L. are not guilty of the trespass men- 
tioned. And that the s^ Robt. K. John B. Wm. F. and 
Walter Shaghe as to breaking the close, cutting down and 
carryintr away 12 oak trees are guilty; and as to cutting dow^n 
and carrying away the residue of y« trees ment*, also taking 
and carrg away the goods and chattels menf* they say that s** 
Robt K. John B. Wm. F. and Walter S. are not guilty ; 
and as to fishing in y« sev^ fishery of f Abbot and taking 
fish, that the s* Robt. John, Wm. and Walt, with force and 
arms for the time contained in the Abbot's description fished 
at Brent and took and carried away 30 salmon as complained 
by the abbot ; and as to taking the remaining fish mentioned 
that thev (R. J. W. and W.) are not guilty ; and as to ye 
taking of the rabbits, except twenty of them, that y« s Robt 
John, Wm. and Walt, are not guilty; as to the 20 rabbits, 
they took and carried them away as compl"! \yy yc ^bbot ; and 
as to the depasture that s*^ Robt Knyght is guilty, and the s 
John Beare, Wm. Fenford and Walter Shaghe also depastured, 
&c. and they were not amerced, &c. And they assess the 
damages of the sd abbot on ace* of y« s^ trespasses at Ten 
Pounds So it is cons«i yt ^e gd ^bbot s\i^ recover ag«* y« said 
Robt. John, Wm. and Walter his s* damages assessed at lOt. 
and ye s^^ R. J. W. and W. be taken And y« s^ abbot in 
mercy for his false claim ag^* John Fox, Wm. Pitman, and 
John Langedon who are acquitted of y^ s«J trespasses. And 
hereupon s"* abbot confesses " se nolle ultenus prosequi ag« 
Wm. Langedon and John Shaghe of plea afores'*. So y« s 

abbot may have exon, &c. « ^ tt t» x., -ir x^j. 

Afterw**" viz. in octaves of S. Hil. 1 6 R. IL Robt Knyght, 

2n 



92 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



present here in Court, is committed to Flete "prison (goale de 
iflete) there to remain until &c. 

The abbot by his s^ atty offered himself on the 4*** day v. s** 
Wm. Langedon and John Shaghe And they do not come 
And the sheriff is ordered &c. The sheriff has not sent }<= 
writ Adjourned to Trinity Term then to be at York on y« 
morrow of S. John Bapt. At w'^'' day no writ from ye sheriff. 
To be at York in the octave of S. Michael &c. 

(Pleas at Westm de Banco Mich 15 R. 11.) 

Robt. Abbot of B. pit. v. Robt. Knyght vicar of ch. of 
Brente, John Fox, John Beare, Wm. Fenford, Wm. Pitman, 
John Langedon and Walter Shage of a plea of tresj)ass. Jury 
in respite. Adjourned to Hil. term when (no writ from \^ 
sheriff) Jury in respite to Trin.* 16 R. 11. Again respited to 
Michmas unless before &c. Jury to be before y« K.'s Justices 
at York &c. 

Afterwards, ie. in Mich term 1 Hen. IV. before y« King 
himself at Westm. at the suit of s^ Robt Knight, John Beare, 
Wm. Fenford and Walter appearing in person and ascertain- 
ing there was error in the record and process afores** and in 
the delivery of the judgment aforesaid and because s** Robt 
late abbot praying for a writ to summon Wm. now abbot of 
Bukfast to be before the King to hear s*^ record and process. 
So the sheriff is ordered to let Wm. know, &c. The same 
day is given to s* Robt. J. Wm. and Walt. At w<='» day come 
before the King at Westm s'* R. J. W. and W. in person, 
and the sheriff returns that he let Wm. now abbot know that 
he was to be at Westm. to hear &c. as required by y« K's 
writ by " Wittm Lamelan, Wiitm Hamstede, Johem Coke f 
Ricm More," &c. Which said Wm. now abbot, tho' warned 
and solemnly called on the fourth day, does not come. 
Hereupon y* s^ Robt. John, Wm. and Walter say that in the 
record and process and delivery of judgment there are divers 
errors, viz. ; — 

Tliat whereas the s* Roftt late abbot prosecuted a writ of 
trespass ag»' y«= s** Robt. Knyght and other def*» before y« s** 
justices etc. and y« s** def*^ by Thos. Norreys y"' attorney 
w*''^ said writ was quashed namely in Hilary Term 14 R. II. ; 
and long aflerw<»» ie. 12 April 14 R. 11. the s^^ late abbot 
obtained that writ ag«» y« def*' in w'^* Thos. Norreys as the 
attorney of y* def*" (as contained in the said rec** and proc.) 
whereas y" s** Thos. had no warrant in that second writ " de 

♦ Robert (abbot) •' po. lo. suo Joh'm Lacche " in this Term. 



. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



93 



quo totu pcessG ^dcm warrantizat"" ;" and so in this, that the 
s^ justices proceeded upon the said plea without any def* 
appearing in his own pson or by att^ have erred And by 
writ as well Wm. Thirnyng Ch. Justice de Coi Banco as 
Wm. Pountfreit keeper of the K's writs de Banco *'ad 
certiorand etc." whether y* s* Robt. John, Wm. and Walter 
made any atty in the plea aforesaid, etc. The s<J Wm. 
Thirnyng to search the Rolls and the s^ Keeper to examine 
the writs of the terms and years afores^ and to certify w*out 
delay. Afterw^^ 30 Jafiy in that same term Wm. Thirnyng 
certified that the Rolls of y" s<^ terms and years had been 
examined; and no attorney can be found of record in y« 
same. And y® s'^ keeper certified that he had no Writ of Atty 
for the terms and years aboves^, and that the date of ye orig* 
Writ in the dispute afores'^ is 12 April 14 R. II. And y^ s<* 
Robt. John, Wm. and Walter say, that there is manifest error 
as appears by y« s^ certificates. And in this, that whereas the 
s*^ Robt. late abbot supposed that they depastured at Brent, 
and they, the def*% alleged that they were diverse times 
amerced and satisfied the abbot of those amercem*% and y® s*^ 
abb^ alleged that they were not amerced, &c. Afterw^'s the 
Justices by Writ of Nisi Prius inquired "if John Fox, Wm. 
Pytman and John Langecon were guilty of the s^ trespasses 
or not, whereas y^ s«i J«8 ought to have inquired if y« s*^ 
John, Wm. and John were amerced and satisfied the abbot 
for said trespasses or not. And, because the Justices Inqf^ if 
they were guilty or not of y« trespasses which the def*" 
acknowledged, they erred. Also there is error in this, that 
whereas John Shaghe came not in his own person or by 
atty and never pleaded, nevertheless y^ Justices inquired if 
he were guilty or not of the s^^ trespasses, they erred. Also 
in this, that whereas W^alter Shaghe s* that he was not guilty 
of taking y« s** rabbits (conies) as alleged by y« abbot, the 
Justices did not inquire whether he was guilty or not, they 
erred. Also in this, that whereas y® s^ abbot supposed that 
s*^ Robt Knyght and other def*" fished in his several fishery 
at Brent and took fish, etc. the s'' Robt K. s'* y' about y« Feast 
of All Saints 6. R II. one Wm. Gibbe took from the abbot to 
the use of the s^ Robt and others ye fishery aforesaid as tenant 
at will, etc. and said y* said Robt occupied the s^ fishery and 
fished there : to w'^'^ plea y*' s"^ abbot made no answer but 
maintained his writ, and y* s** Justices inq^ as to the justifica- 
tion of s'l Robt K. in s^ plea, whereas the abbot made no 
answer to the justify, they erred. Also in this, that whereas 
Jolm Fox and other def*^ said in y""" plea that they came to 



94 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



assist Robt Knyght to fish in the 6th and 7th years, etc. 
whereas no mention was made of any seventh year in the 
plea and y'= s^^ abbot by accepting that plea and answering 
thereto, whereas it is not the plea on which the parties joined 
issue (as appears in the Record) which issue the Justices 
accepted and inquired upon, they erred. Also in this, that 
whereas y« s^ abbot supposed that the tresj)ass was done at 
Brente,^ " postea in replicacoe sua idm Abbas manutenuit 
|cam t'-nsgr fieri apud Brente t sic non n>anutenuit f^ncrr 
f/dcam fieri in villa in naracoe sua contenta s} in alia villa et 
in hoc qd Justic pcessenint ad iudni sup tli ptito erraverunt." 
And they pray that the said judgment on ace* of s** errors 
and others in the Record and process aforesaid be reversed ; 
and that the Court proceed to the exam" of the said Record 
and process. Hereupon a day is given to y« said Rotit 
Knyght and others from Easter to three weeks, at w^^ day 
came y" s^ Robt and others in person ; and, the Court not 
bemg ready to deliver judgement, a day is given to s*^ R. <S:c. 
to be before our Lord y« King wherever, &c. in term of Holy 
Judgment. Tnnity to hear judgment. Ad quern diem coram dno Retre 
apud Westin veil Jdci Robtus Knyght Johes Beare Wiltms 
Fenfibrd 1 WalViis in ^priis psofi suis Et vis 1 diligen? 
examniatis recordo 1 pcessu fdcis videf cur qd in hoc qd ubi 
p/dcus Robtus nup Abbas etc. supposuit p bre 1 narr sua 
qd ^dcj Rob Knv^cht 1 alii defendent etc. blada 1 herbam sua 
cu quibusdam av'iis suis depasti fuerunt apud Brenta etc. 
f/dci Johes BVx Johes Beare Wiltms Fenfford Wiltms Pitman 
Johes Lang«don 1 Walt Shaghe allegar qd p eisdin t-^nsgr in 
Cur ipms nup Abbtis apud_ Brenta diesis tempib) aiiiciati 
1 afforati fuer 1 de eisdm anlciament eidm nup Abfeti 
satisfecef ad quod idm nup Abbas ptitando alleg qd p\lci 
»Johes Fox % alii defend non fuer amciati 1 afforati p eisdm 
f'nsgr nee p eisdm f^nsgr eidem nup Abbti satisfecer Sup quo 
postea cJtis die 1 loco put continet' in recordo qd Justic 
adinquir de t»nsgr fJdcis p bre de Nisi Prius deputaf inquisiver 
SI f^dci Johes Fox Wiltms Pitman 1 Johes Langedoii fuer 
culpables de f'nsgr fdcis vel non ubi jJdci Justic inquisivisse 
debuissent si p/dci Johes Fox Wiltms Pitman \ Johes 
Langedon p p/dcis t"-nsgr aniciati 1 afforati fuerunt 1 p eisdm 
t nsgr eidin nup Abbti satisfecer vel non put ipi ptitando 
allegar Et in hoc qd Justic inquisiver si ipi fuerunt culi)able3 

15 *""?^'^ P^^^^^ ^^^ ^**" "^* if» P P*i?'n 8UU ?dcm cogn 
t nsgr jidcum manifesto est err. To con§ est qd ob errorera 
pdcm 1 alios in recordo 1 pcessu pdcis comptos qd judm 
all. f/dcm revocetur adnuUef^ 'i penit^ p imllo heaf Et qd ^dci 



95 






.lud'm adn 



Rofet^ Knyght Johes Beare Wilts Fenfford *? Wal?us reheant 
dampna sua pdca si que occone pdca pfato nup Abbti aut dco 
nunc Abbti satisfeclint Et qd ipi eant inde sine die etc. 
(De Banco Roll, Hilary, 1 Henry IV.) 

127. I have failed not only in verifying Dr. Oliver's 
authorities in the Dart fishery case, but also in ascertaining 
further particulars with reference to the placing of the arms of 
James and Thomas Audelay " in the window of the w^est end 
of the Conventual Church and in the window of the gable end 
in the Lady Chapel there." Although a careful search has 
been made, the entries havo not turned up, and they are not 
wliere Dr. Oliver states they are. I much regret this, for I 
believe there is some mistake, inasmuch as Cistercian churches 
had no Lady Chapel, the whole church being dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin [See Monasticon Cisterciense, cap. xviii.] 1 
was in hopes also that the document might have contained 
some further references to the church, which might have 
enabled us to form some idea of its extent and appearance. 

128. Robert Simons was evidently an abbot who had the 
interest of his house at heart, and did much for its worldly 
prosperity. Ho must have been abbot for upwards of thirty- 
five years, and was succeeded in his office by William Paderston, 
who was confirmed in September, 1395; He was not abbot 
long, and I havo not been able to find anything relating to 
the abbey in which he was interested, except the Avon fishery 
case, which w^as finally decided in his time, and the following 
from the De Banco Roll 3 Henry IV., 1202. 

Wm. abbot of Buckfast, Brother Wni. Beagh, and 
Brother Richard Gorwet, fellow monks of the said abbot, . 
and Thomas Baker and Richard Helyere, the abbot's servants, 
were attached to answer to Thomas Knight, Vicar of the 
Church of Brent, of the plea ** quare vi et armis in ipsum 
Robtm apud Brente insultum fecerunt, etc.," and detained 
him in prison there until he, R^ibert, paid 20/. for deliverance. 
The abbot denied his culpability, and alleged that Robert 
had diverted a water-course which ran through his, Robert's, 
lands, &c. All parties put themselves on the country, so the 
sheriff, to make come twelve, &c., from Michaelmas to 
fifteen days. 

129. My next document is dated 18th May, 1414, when 
the learned William Slade had become abbot. He was a 
Devonshire man and educated at Exeter. Proceeding to 
Oxford, he acquired a good reputation, and about 1413 be- 
came abbot of Buckfast. As far as we know, with the 



n 




96 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



exception of the last abbot, be v as the most distinguished 
man connected with the house. He was not only a scholar 
and a theologian, but an artist, and a spiritual guide to those 
over whom he was set, and to the parishioners of the churches 
belonging to the Abbey. He made many important additions 
to the conventual buildings, and I think it may be concluded 
that it is to his exertions that the people of Kingsbridge are 
indebted for the Chapel of St. Edmund, king and martyr, 
— consecrated by Bishop Stafford, 26th August, 1414, at 
which time the cemetery adjoining was also blessed — being 
made a parisli church. 

130. Kingsbridge was in the parish of Churchstow. • 
Certainly, as early as 1333, 7 Edward III., the manors of 
Churchstow and Kingsbridge belonged to the abbey, but how 
it became possessed of them is not clear. In 1291, when 
the Survey for the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas was taken, 
Churchstow belonged to the Abbey, and, as appears from the 
entry paragraph 106, the value is entered at 13s. 4d., the 
tenth being Is. 4d. Churchstow is two miles from Kingsbridge, 
and, as often hapi)ened, a particular part of the parish, as 
time passed on, became as important as, or more important 
than, the neighbourhood around the mother church; and 
we iind from a deed without date, but probably late in 
the twelfth century, that provision was required for the 
spiritual wants of the people of Kingsbridge. The original 
d&ed is in the possession of the feoffees of the town lands 
of Kingsbridge, and a translation will be found in Hawkins's 
History of Kingsbridge, p. 122. 

" Sciant praisentes et futuri quod ego M. de Litlecumba 
Rector Ecclesiae de Chirchstowe concessi Abbati et Monachis 
de Bukfest edificare Ecclesiam in honore beati Edmundi Regis 
et Martiris in Dominio suo in Villa qua dicta Kingesbrig, 
ita quod omnes proventus illius Villae ad Ecclesiam pertinentes 
cedant ad Sustentationem unius Capellani qui in pra?dicta 
Ecclesia Divina celebret imperpetuum, et omnes Homines in 
prsedicta Villa maneutes audiant divinum Seryicium in 
prsedicta Ecclesia Et omnia Ecclesiastica jura ibidem per- 
cipiant, ita cum quod Saltem semel in Anno insitent Matrem 
Ecclesiam scilicet Chirchstowe videlicet in Assumptione 
Beatse MarisB Virginis ut infra octavum oblationibus quibus 
infra limites Parochiae pranlicta villa consistet. Verum 
propterea Ecclesia de Chirchstowe de loco illo scilicet 
Kingesbrig nunquam aliquid percipere consuento et ideo 
libere istud concedo quam omnino est sine prejudicio Matris 
Ecclesiae et Maximum opus Misericordiae est Divinum in- 



: 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



97 



choare servitium quod per omnibus Christi fidelibus unus et 
Defunctus Annuente Cristo in loco illo celebrabiter in per- 
petuam. Ut aut haec concessio mea firma permaneat huic 
prsesenti Scripto in Testimonum et Confirm ationem Sigillum 
meum appono. 

131. This deed was the consent of the rector of the mother 
church to the erection of a new church, but apparently the 
new building was not consecrated for some time after, for the 
consecration deed of Bishop Stafford speaks of the chapel 
which then and from time immemorial (the scribe did not 
trouble himself to make very careful inquiry, or he would 
have found that his " time immemorial " would have dwindled 
down to very few years) was erected, and magnificently built 
by sufficient and lawful authority, that the parish and parish- 
ioners were distinct from Churchstow, and that the rector was 
obliged to perform all divine services at the chapel for the 
people of Kingsbridge, except burial of the dead, which was 
accustomed to be done at Churchstow. 

132. The chapel received assistance towards maintaining 
its independent character. John Cob, Vicar of Hennock, 
gave to the chapel of St. Edmund at Kingsbridge, and to the 
overseers of the chapel, a tenement and garden near the 
cemetery of the chapel. The deed conveying this is dated 
23rd April, 1410, more than four years before the consecra- 
tion, so that the cemetery although provided was not used. 

Noverint universi per presentes me Johannem Cob Vica- 
rium Ecclesia? de Heanok remisisse relaxasse et omnino pro 
me et haeredibus meis imperpetuum quiesce clamasse Deo et 
Capellae Sancte Edmundi Regis et Martiris de Kyngesbrigge 
et Hugoni Pocok et Roberto Fayrefot Custodibus instauri 
dictae Capellae et successoribus suis Custodibus dictae Capellae 
et instauri ejusdem totum jus et clameum quae habeo in uno 
tenemento et gardino eidem tenementum adjacente situatis 
inter Cimiterium dictae Capellae ex parte australe et tene- 
mentum Thome Duer et Johanne uxoris suae Filiae Johannis 
Granute ex parte boreali Et ego vero praedictus Johannes et 
heredes mei totum praedictum tenementum et totum prae- 
dictum gardinum cum pertinentiis praefatis custodibus et 
successoribus suis contra omnes gentes warrantizabimus 
imperpetuum. 

In cujus rei testimonium praesentibus sigillum meum ap- 
posui. Hiis testibus : 



I' 



t 
4 



i 



1 vi 



(i 

I* ' 

■ ■ 



98 



Datii 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

Thoma Duer tunc praeposito VillsB praeclictae. 

Johanne Jaycok. 

Rogerus Degher. 

Johanne Vele. 

Willielmo Gormond. 

Johanne Torryng. 

Johanne Radevifie et multis aliis. 

apud Kyngesbrygge Vicessimo tertio die Aprih's 



Anno Regni regis Henrici Quarti post Conquestum undecimo. 

133. A copy of the sentence of consecration is, like the 
others to which I have referred, in the custody of the 
feoffees of the Kingsbridge Town lands, and a translation 
will be found in Hawkins's History of Kingsbridge, p. 123. 
Attached are six seals, those of the Bishop, the Archdeacon, 
probably, and the Abbot of Buckfast. In the fourth a double 
key is to be made out, which shows that it is the seal of the 
Prior or Priory of Plympton, the fifth seal is altogether gone, 
and the sixth is the seal of the Kingsbridge Feoffees. Entries 
relating to the consecration will also be found in Bishop 
Stafford's Registers. 

134. It is clear therefore that, for the convenience of the 
inhabitants of Kingsbridge, the rector of Churchstow, with 
the consent of the abbot and convent, promoted the erection 
of what we should now call a chapel of ease, which very soon 
became or was considered, if not a parish, a district with 
certain parochial rights. The dead of Kingsbridge had still 
to be brought, as stated in the petition, from the chapel, on the 
low ground near the sea, to the church, founded on the summit 
of a high mountain, proceeding through a troublesome and 
tedious ascent of the said mountain. The rector of Church- 
stow had to provide for all the duty, and now Abbot Slade 
thought that tliG time had arrived when the new building 
should be consecrated. Kingsbridge was now becoming more 
important and required development, which the abbots of 
Buckfast as lords of tiic manor did their best to encourage. 

135. William Slade did not devote the whole of his time 
to the temporal affairs of his A bbey. He was a student and 
author, and Leland has left us a list of his books which re- 
mained in the library of the Abbey, which I here give. It 
contains also the titles of other manuscripts belonging to the 
Abbey. In the middle of this list is the observation as to tlie 
origin of the house to which I have before referred : — 

" Cosnobium de Bukfast olim incepit per fratres quos appeU 
lahant GrysaoSy deinde admisit Bemardinosy 



,. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



99 



Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Library of Buckfast 

Abbey. 

Trivet super tragaedias Senecae. 

Triveti historia ab initio mundi usque ad nativitatem Christi 
ad Hugonum de Engolisma, atchidiaconum Cantuar. 

Lectura Blencot super quartum Sententiarum. 

Kilwardeby de conscientia et synderesi. 

Quaestiones Johannis Sutton. 

Quodlibeta Johannis Sutton. 

Quaestiones Gaynesburg. 

Quaestiones Gilberti Segrave. 

Quolibeta ejusdem. 

Universalia magistri Sharpe super libros Phisicorum. 

Qusestiones Gulielmi Slade abbatis de Bukfest de anima. 

Quaestiones ejusdem super 4**' libros Sententiarum Vixit 
tempore Ricardi 2^ 

Beda de nominibus regnorum. 

Flores Moralium Gulielmi Slade. 

Johannes abbas de Forda de contemporibus Mundi. 

Stephanus Cantuar de benedictionibus et maledictionibus 
datis in monte Ebal. 

Grostest super decem praecepta. 

Antiquarii Collectanea, Johannis Lelandi. 

Ed. 1770. Vol. iii. (iv.), p. 152. 

136. If there was nothing else to show the great mistake 
made in dealing with the monasteries as they were dealt with 
at the Dissolution, the atrocious way in which the priceless 
libraries were dispersed and destroyed would be quite suffi- 
cient to convince the most sceptical. Even the fanatical Pro- 
testant Bale called the destruction wanton and shameful, and 
prophesied that it would be to England a most horrible infamy, 
" among the grave senyours of other nacyons." 

137. From the Issue Roll it appears that the Dean and 
Chapter of Exeter, with the Abbot of Buckfast and others, 
lent moneys to the King, taking care to have security for the 
repayment. 

18 May. To JohnCopelston, junior, and divers other persons 
coming from the county of Devon to London, with a certain 
sum erf £573 6s. 8d. borrowed from the Dean and Chapter of 
the Cathedral Church of Exeter ; the Mayor of the town of 
Exeter ; the Abbot of Tavystock ; the Prior of Lanceton ; 

2o 



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THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



the Abbot of Bukfast ; Robert Gary, Prior of Plymton ; 
Alexander Chambemoun, Mayor of the town of Plymouth ; 
John Bonel and John Copelston. In money paid to the afore- 
said John Copelston, junior, and his companions, for the safe 
conduct of certain of the King's jewels, valued at £800, 
delivered to the aforesaid persons as security for the said 
sums borrowed of them under conditions contained in certain 
indentures made between our lord the King and the said 
John and his companions, &c. By writ, &c. — i;10. 

Issue Roll, Easter, 3 Hen. V. 1414. 

137. The assent to the consecration of the church at Kings- 
bridge must have been one of the latest acts of Blade's life, 
for in 1415, Sept- 8th, about twelve months afterwards, Wil- 
liam Beaghe or Beagle was confirmed abbot. In the glories 
of Agincourt in the following month the Abbey participated, 
for William Beaghe contributed one hundred marks towards 
the expenses of the expedition. 

138. It would seem from the De Banco Roll, 3 Henry IV. 
before quoted, par. 128, that William had been a monk of 
the house before his election in the time of Abbot Paverston. 

139. The first of the three following extracts relates to a de- 
faulting collector of some of the revenues ; the second to a 
debt due ; and the third to a trespass committed upon some 
property of the Abbey at Totnes. 

Devon. Abbas de Buckfast in ppria persona sua op' se iiij**' die 

versus Johem Torryng de Lostwythyell in com Cornub 
iSchant de ptito qd reddat ei ronabilem compotu suu de 
tempore quo fuit receptor denar ipius Abbis etc. Et ipe no 
veil Et prec fuit vie qd sum eu etc. Et vie modo mand 
qd nichil het etc. I'o capiat"' qd sit hie a die see Trinitatis 
in XV dies etc.— (De Banco Roll, Easter, 8 Henry V. m. 251.) 

Devon. Witts Abbas de Buckfastre per Attorn suu op' se iiij*° die 

9sus Johem Johan de Dodbroke in com pdico Milward de 
plito qd reddat ei sexagintaT; vndecim solidosT; octo denarios 

m. 159 d. quos ei debet 1 iniuste detinet etc. Et ipe non ven Et prec 
fuit vie qd sum eu etc. Et vie modo mand qd nichil het etc. 
To capiat*^. Ita qd sit hie a die Pasche in tres septimanas 
etc.*— (De Banco Roll, Hilary, 8 Henry V. m. 159 d.) 

I^von'. Wills Abbas de Bukfast p attorn suu op' se iiij*" die versus 

ra. 203. Patricu Mark de Tottori in com pdco Crokker de ptito quare 

♦ The same debt appears in the Roll Easter, 9 Henrj V. [m. .'JSSd] and 
ihen order made to " hare him here " from Trinity to fifteen days. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



101 



cu idem abbas in feodo suo apud Toton p consuetudinib) T, 
svicijs sibi debitis quedam catalla p Rofetum Marchant 
svientem suii capi fecisset idem Robtus catalla ilia noie 
districcois scdm legem T: consuetudinem rcgni Regis Angt 
ibm detinere voluisset pdcus Patricius catalla ilia eidem 
Rob to vi 1 armis abstulit et alia enormia etc. ad g*ve 
dampnu etc. '1 cont"" pacem Regis etc. Et ipe non ven 
Et sicut prius prec fuit vie qd capet eu etxj. Et vie modo 
mand qd non est inventus etc. I'o sicut plur capiat"". Ita 
qd sit hie a die Pasche in tres septimanus etc. — (De Banco 
Roll, Hilary, 8 Henry V. m. 203). 

140. During this abbot's rule the house had trouble, and six 
years after his elevation things had become so bad that it was 
found necessary to refer them to William, Abbot of Hayles, 
and Brother Michael of Moreton. I have to thank Mr. 
Edward Bishop for furnishing me with a transcript of a 
notarial instrument published in the chapter-house at Buck- 
fast 26 January, 1421. It is a most interesting document, 
perhaps more so than any I have been able to include in this 
paper. 

141. The name of the notary is not given. In it the name 
of the abbot is spelt Beagle. Oliver gives his name as Beaghe, 
and in the extracts from the De Banco Rolls it is also so spelt. 
I give a free outline of the contents. 

After a preamble with the date of the year, the reign of 
the Pope, and so on, the document goes on to say that the 
abbot, Abbot William of Hayles, Brother Michael of Lang 
Benynton, which was originally an English cell of Savigny, 
Thomas Roger, Prior of Buckfast, with the whole assembly of 
the monastery being present in the chapter-house, the 
abbot of Hayles handed to the notary a paper, praying that 
he would read the contents aloud, which he did to the follow- 
ing effect. 

A subject of discord having arisen between that honourable 
man the abbot and the convent, with regard to the govern- 
ment of the brethren within and without, which, by the wis- 
dom, labour, and zeal of the Abbot of Hayles and Brother 
Michael, was settled thus, that the abbot might entertain 
according to the ancient and worthy and wonted usage of the 
Abbey, might receive his guests and strangers, and that the 
servants of the monastery might wait upon them according to 
his instructions. That the abbot, being advanced to a con- 
siderable age and frequently crippled with bodily disease, was 
often broken down witli infirmity, so that things which, 



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THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



according to the statutes of the order, should be fulfilled in 
person, he was unable to fulfil, and the monastery had suffered, 
and it was feared would suffer more in future, it was decreed 
that the abbot should not interfere in any way except when 
required to do so by the prior and brethren, and then that he 
should agree to their wishes. That the abbot should not 
obtain any privileges or exemptions from Rome, as such 
might tend to the curtailment of the statutes and privileges 
of the order. That the abbot should receive either 10/. or 
40/. [which is uncertain, probably the latter,] per annum, 
paid quarterly, for his clothes and necessaries. That when 
the abbot was summoned or invited to take part in any cere- 
mony, such as the installation of the Bishop of Exeter, the 
burial of nobles and otliers for the advantage of the monastery, 
or the honour of the abbot himself, as he was often wont to 
do, and as his predecessors were wont to do, the abbot's 
expenses were to be borne by the house ; and if at any time 
he should wish to ride or walk about outside the monastery 
for his own recreation, he might go with a proper retinue, but 
at his own expense. That if any gifts were presented to the 
abbot he was to have them and rejoice therein, and reward the 
bearers ; but, if he allowed the gifts to go to the common use 
of the monastery, the bearers were to be rewarded from the 
common chest. 

And the notary says that all these things were done as 
above written, and that, beside those mentioned at the com- 
mencement, there were also present those discreet men John 
Carnell, bachelor of law, and Henry Fortescue, clerk of the 
said diocese, these having been specially called and sum- 
moned ; and piously concludes. And thus peace, faith, hope, 
and charity here met together, which the undivided blessed 
Trinity abandons in discord, but cherishes in concord. Amen. 

There are many errors in the spelling, grammar, &c., but 
the sense is apparent, the mistakes are easily corrected, 
and I print the document as it stands. 



26 Jan. 
1421. 



In Dei Nomine. Amen. 

Per presens publicum instrumentum cunctis 
api^ereat (sic) evidenter quod Anno ab Incama- 
cione Drii secundum cursum et computacionem ecclesie 
Anglicane millesimo cccc™** vicesimo primo, Indicciones quinta 
decima, Pontificatus sanctissimi in Christo Patris et Domini 
nostri Domini Martini Divina Providencia Pape quinti Anno 
quinto mensis Januarii die xx™" vj** in domo capitulari 
5lonasterii de Buckfast Ordinis Cisterciensis, Exoniensis 



BUCKEAST ABBEY. 



103 



Diocesis, in mei Notarii Publici et Testium subscriptorum 
presencia honorabilibus et religiosis viris Domnis Willielmo 
Beagle Abbate ut asserit Monasterii de Buckefast predicti 
et Willielmo Abbate Monasterii beate Marie de Hayles 
Wigorniensis [Diocesis], Fratre Michaele de Moretoneo 
Magistro de Langbinyngton Lincolniensis Diocesis ut asser- 
itur, ac Fratre Thoma Roger Priore dicti monasterii de 
Buckfast predicti («ic.) [cum] toto Conventio ejusdem Monas- 
terii de Buckfast personaliter constitutis; 

Dictus Honorabilis et rehgiosus Vir Domnus Willielmus 
Abbas Monasterii de Hayles assertus (?) mihi uotario in- 
frascripto Cedulam in papiro scriptam tradi fecit, supplicans 
quod eandem cedulura legerem in aperto; quam post ejus 
inspeccionem legi ; cujus cedule tenor talis est : — 

Nuper exorta materia perturbacionis et discordie inter 
honorabilem et religiosum virum Domnum Abbatem Monas- 
terii de Buckfast Ordinis Cisterciensis Exoniensis Diocesis et 
suum Conventum ibidem de et super regimine et gubernacione 
Spiritualium et Temporalium dicti Monasterii infra et extra, 
ceterisque causis, punctis et articulis aliis, que omnia et sin- 
gula in presenti longum esset en arrare ; Deo tamen annuente 
qui est pacis Auctor, discrecione, labore, et industria reverendi 
in Christo Patris et Domini Domni Willielmi Dei gracia 
Abbatis Monasterii beate Maria de Haylez Wygomiensis 
Diocesis, et religiosi viri fratris Mychaelis de Moretones 
Magistro de Langbinyngton Lincolniensis Diocesis, Ordinis 
antedicti, ad visitandum Monasterium de Buckfast in capite 
et in membris legitime deputatorum, dicta materia sedata est 
et quievit per visitatores predictos in hunc modum : — 

In primis quod dictus honorabihs et religiosus vir Domnus 
-Willielmus Abbas antedictus secundum antiquum, honestum 
et solitum usum dicti Monasterii de Buckfast hospites et 
advenas suos cum ad idem monasterium declinaverint juxta 
eorum statum bene recipiat, hillaremque vultum eis ostendat, 
suis eciam et dicti Monasterii famulis quibuscumque in licitis 
et honestis jubeat, precipiat et commoneat quod eisdem inten- 
dant in aula, mensa et camera prout sui status honestas debite 
exigit et requirit 

Item quia dictus Domnus Willielmus abbas prelibatus jam 
in matura etate constitutus corporisque invalitudine multi- 
pliciter detentus diversis infirmitatibus sepius occupatus [est] 
et confractus, quod omnia que in sua persona errent juxta 
sui Ordinis statuta adimplenda personaliter nequeat propter 
premissa providere nee adimplere, adeo quod dictum monas- 
terium dampnum. patitur in presenti et plus timendum ei in 



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104 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



faturo ; quare consideratura est et decretam quod dictus 
Domnus Willielmus Abbas prelibatus nullo modo se intro- 
mittat in guberiiacione et regimine spiritualium aut tempo- 
ralium quorumcumque nisi cum fuerit per Priorem et Con- 
ventum suuin debite ad hoc requisitus, et tunc eorum 
voluntati adquiescat in hiis que tangant dicti monasterii 
utilitatem et sui status et ordinis exigenciam omnimodo. 

Item concordatum et decretum est quod dictus honorabilis 
vir et Domnus Willielmus Abbas prelibatus non acquirat per 
se aut sues aliqua privilegia exempciones et similia a Curia 
Romana que possunt vergi in derogacionem dicti Ordinis 
Cisterciensis et statutorum ejusdem ; &, si qua hujusmodi 
privilegia liabeat, aut habere eum de cetero contingat, quod 
eisdem non utatur quovis modo. 

Item consideratis considerandis concordatum et decretum 
est per visitatores predictos commune consensu pariter et 
assensu dictorum Abbatis et Conventus Monasterii de Buck- 
fast predicti quod dictus Willielmus Abbas . . . dum Abbas 
fuerit percipiet annuatim ad quatuor anni terminos per 
equales porciones a dictis Priore et Conventu pro vestura et 
aliis necessariis dicti Abbatis x libr. 

Item concordatum et decretum est, si contingat dictum 
Domnum Willielmum Abbatem extra Monasterium invitari 
aut vocari pro dicti Monasterii utilitate, ipsiusve Abbatis 
honestate, videlicet ad installacionem Episcopi Exoniensis 
loci Diocesani, sepultura et obitio Magnatuum et Prelatorum 
ac aliorum generosorum, amicorum et vicinorum, prout sepe 
solebat et predecessores sui Abbates solebant, liec omnia 
semper fient expensis dicti Monasterii cum contingant. 

Item si aliquando dictus domnus Abbas extra dictum 
Monasterium pro sui ipsius disporto et voluntate equitare 
aut spaciare voluerit, tunc decente familia, sed expensis 
propriis, ista fient. 

Item concordatum est et decretum quod si qua munera, 
donaria, bonaque alia quecumque dicto Domno Abbati 
ofi'erantur et donentur, eadem habeat et inde gaudeat, dum 
tamen contemplacione persone ejusdem hoc fiet ; tunc ex 
propriis remuneret deportantes prout placet. Et si eadem in 
communem usum et dicti Monasterii utilitate convertat, de 
com muni thesauro remunerentur. 

Et dum nee omnia premissa fiJeliterobservanda hinc et inde 
tam dicti Abbas quam frater Thomas Roger Prior dicti Monas- 
terii tactis Dei Evangeliis per eosdem corporaliter prestiterunt. 

Acta sunt hec omnia prout suprascribuntur et recitantur 
sub anno Domini, Indiccione, Pontificatu, die, mense, et loco 



99 



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f 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



105 



predictis ; j)resentibus tunc ibidem discretis viris Jolianne 
(^arnell in Legibus Bacallario, et Henrico Fortescu Clerico 
dicte Exoniensis Diocesis, testibus ad premissa vocatis speci- 
aliter et I'ogatis. 

Et sic pax, fidis, spes, et charitas hie in unum obviarunt, 
quas inter discordes concedat, inter Concordes foveat, Trinitas 
indivisa. Amen. (MS. Reg 12, E. xiv., fol. (32-64 recte.) 

142. The aged and infirm abbot enjoyed his home and 
l)ension for several years. Let us hope he often walked 
abroad with his becoming retinue ** pro sui ipsius disporto 
spatiari." His successor, Thomas Rogger, was not blessed 
until the 13th April, 1432, more than eleven years after the 
settlement of the discords detailed by the notary. 

143. Of Thomas Rogger and the succeding abbots we 
know little more than their names. Rogger was succeeded 
by John Ffychet, 16th October, 1440. He was concerned in 
legal proceedings with reference to the Erne river, as 
appears from the following extracts in Norman French from 
the year-book 1441 : — 

En Trns Le pi' counta v's PAbbe de Bulkfast de san Trespas. 
gort debrwi' en Ermingf. 1[ Yelverton. Est un douce eau 
courrant en t dit Ermingt tanqj al' haut mer, qui est appelP 
Erine, ou le dit Abbe 1 touts ses gdec Ic. ont un ou^ture de 
vj pieds de largeur en chaqu gort en le dit Erine, 1 illec taqj 
a haut mer de temps, Ic. ou le cours d ce eau plus pfondemt 
court '^ disousq le dit gort dont il ad luy complain est [B] 
en la dit Ermingt, %qc fuit estopjje, T; nous ceo debrusames 
accord a nre ouverture avadit. Jug si ace. IT Markham. A 
ceo disons nous, q le Snr de Hun? long temps devant le 
trespas fuit seisi de fn le gort en son domain come de fee, 1 
nous lessa pur Pme de x ans, le ?me commenc, Ic. Quel 
tme dure unc, 1 vous debrusastes m le gort hors de cost lieu 
dont vous ave5 pie par ij pches pcheiii at ?re, sur q nous avos 
conceu nostr ace. Jug. Et prios q vous soie} atteints. 
1" Yelverton. Log temps devat cest leas le Siir de Hun? a 
no lessa m le gort pur tme de fir vie, p fore de ql nous 
fumes seisis T; debrusames come bn a nous list, f Mark- 
ham. De vre tort demon sans tiet cause, f Newton. Ceo 
n'est pie : car si jeo port bre de Trns v^s vous 1 vous dies que 
le lieu ou, Ic. fuit vre franc! (Jug Ic.J n'e rns pur moy, adire, 
De vre tort demeii sans tiel cause. Ergo nee hie. Et puis. 
J Markham. Way va la pie, 1 tra% le leas a ?me de vie.— 
(Year-Book De Termino Trinitatis, Anno xx. Henrv VI.) 



i 






t 






■ff yy 






Bukfast. 
La Ya in 
Brent. 



106 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



144. It was also about this time perhaps that Richard 
Dove, monk and scholar of Buckfast, drew up the statutes of 
the house, with the oaths to be taken by the novices, monks, 
scholars, and others. They are very interesting, and I am glad 
to be able to present them in the appendix to this paper. 

145. The following, perhaps about the same date, relates 
to land in Brent : — 

Hec convencio facta inter frem Minorensem Abbm Buck- 
fastre &c. ex una pte et Rieum de Cotelaford ex alta viz. 
pdict abbas &c. dedere &c. unu ferling t^re in la Ya in 
man«io de Brenta qd Robtus de la Ya quond tenuit &c. 
Habend de dicto Rico Cotelaford et Hered &c. In cujus rei 
test sigilla sua alternatim apposuer. Hijs Test. Jolie de 
Boyvile. Witto de Kilbury, Stepho Stoyll, tunc Scenescho 
Sdictoru Religiosoru Benedicto le Bon Witto de Harbenford, 
Witto de la Ford [sans date*] p. 540.— (Brit. Mus. Add. 
MSS. 28,649, p. 413.) [Prince's excerpts from Pole's MS.] 

From the Assize Roll, temp. Henry VI., we learn that 
Gode claimed as his freehold a tenement in Buckfastleigh, 
of which the abbot of Buckfast and William Budde and his 
wife, and another Budde and his wife, had dis-seized him. 
The verdict was against the abbot. 

146. John Matthu was confirmed 3 Oct 1449, and he it 
was probablv who obtained from the King, — Edward IV., 
surely not Henry VI., as stated in Fox's Kingsbridge,— a grant 
of a weekly market, and a fair for three days in the year at 
Kingsbridge, and a fair for the same number of days once a 
year at Buckfastleigh. The Kingsbridge market and fair still 
continue to be held. A copy of the grant is given in the 

book just mentioned.! 

147. It has been said that John Bothe, afterwards Bishop 
of Exeter, was Abbot of Buckfast ; but, on examining the 
events of his life before his consecration as bishop, it would 
seem that this could not have been. 

148. John Kinge is found as abbot 25 Feb. 1483, and 
John Rede 24 Nov. 1498. 

149. In the interesting little book entitled " The Parish of 
Ashburton in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries," being 
extracts from the churchwardens' accounts from 1479 to 1580, 
in the year 1499-1500 a receipt of 4s. is credited from a gift 
of the Lord Abbot of Buckfast, Saint Clere Pomeroy, Galfrid 

• •So in MS. „ „^^ 

t Kingsbridge and its Surroundings, by S. P. Fox, pp. 34—248. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



107 



Harepath, and others. I thought at first that this was an 
unraentioned abbot of Buckfast, but on consideration I do 
not think the entry bears this out. If in the original entry 
there is a comma after " the Lord Abbot of Buckfast," it 
would I think show that the abbot and Saint Clere Pomeroy 
were different persons. Prince says that Edward Pomeroy 
and Margaret Beavil his wife had issue Henry, Seinclere, and 
John * Sir William Pole says that Edward Pomeroy died 
24 Henry VI. 1445.t Both Prince and Pole trace the descent 
of the elder son Henry, and do not refer to the second and 
tliird ; but in the Heralds' Visitation of 1620 we find in the 
j)edigree of Ford | that St. Cleere Pomeroy was the son ot 
John Pomeroy, and that he married, and had issue, in which 
case he could not have been the abbot of Buckfast. I believe 
this to be the same person as that mentioned in the Ashburton 
accounts. Beyond this there is no reference elsewhere, so 
far, to a Pomeroy being abbot of Buckfast ; but, if it should 
prove to be the case, it will be very interesting to find that a 
descendant of its early benefactors was connected with the 
Abbey in its latter days.|| 

150. In the accounts just referred to is another entry, 
under date 1512, ijs. for ringing the knell of the late abbot 
of Buckfast. This must have been for either Saint Clere 
Pomeroy ^if he was the abbot) or John Rede, for on Palm 
Sunday, 20 April, 1512, Alfred Gille succeeded the deceased 
abbot. Gille, after ruling the house for thirteen years, was 
succeeded by John Rede, whom Dr. Oliver thought might 
have been a nephew of Abbot John- Rede before mentioned. 
He had a care for the welfare of Kingsbridge and Church- 
stow, and readjusted the revenues of the chm'ches. He was 
confirmed abbot 13th April, 1525, and lived about twelve 
years after. He may be considered the last abbot, for his 
successor was foisted upon the monks, and was simply put in 
to carry out the designs of the King. 

151. Gabriel Donne or Downe was a student in Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, and afterwards a monk of Stratford, a 
Cistercian house at West Ham, Middlesex. A suit, followed 
by an appeal to Rome, between the abbot and convent and 
the vicar William Shragger arose, and on the 7th Feb. 1517, 
a "composition real" between the abbot and the vicar was 
executed, and "the provident and religious man Gabriel 

* Prince's Worthies, p. 645, ed. 1812. 
t Pole's Collections, p. 20 J Har. Soc. 1872, p. 108. 

II I have since examined the original entry, and I do not think that it is 
any evidence as to Saint Clere Pomeroy having been an abbot of Buckfast. 

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108 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DE^ON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



109 



Donne, monk of the Blessed Mary of Stratford, of the Order 
of Cistercians " was procter for the brethren. 

152. His abilities and zeal soon broufjht him into more 
public notice, and he was employed by Cranmer, More, and 
others to assist in the apprehension of Tyndale at Antwerp. 
He accompanied Henry Phillips, " a tall, comely, good-looking 
young man " travelling as a gentleman, as his counsellor, dis- 
guised as a servant. There can be little doubt that he 
was the author of the plan which resulted in the capture, 
imprisonment, and death of Tyndale. Donne resided for six 
months after Tyndale's arrest with Phillips or Buckenham at 
Louvain, assisting in preparing the case against Tyndale. 
He returned to England in June, 1535, and was shortly after 
thrust into the abbey of Buckfast, doubtless as a reward 
for his services to the King, the Archbishop, Bishops, and 
Cromwell. In June, 1536, he attended the meeting of 
Convocation at St. Paul's, and he signs the articles then 
promulgated, as "Gabriel, Abbas de Buikfastria,"'' 

153. Within two years of his election he alienated much 
of the monastic property, and on the 25th February, 1538, he 
betrayed his trust, and surrendered the house with its be- 
longings into the hands of the King, and fifteen months 
after was rewarded with a large pension ; the Prior of 
Plympton alone, among all the heads of religious houses in 
this county, receiving so much. This pension of £120, equal 
to £1,800 of our money, was enjoyed by him until his death 
in 1558. On the 16th March, 1541, he was made Prebendary 
of St Paul's, and three years later Cromwell gave him the 
rectory of Stepney "sine cura." Upon Bonner's depriva- 
tion in Sept. 1549, Cranmer, according to Strype,* " consti- 
tuted Gabriel Donne residentiary of St. Paul's, to be his 
official and keeper of the spirituality, and to exercise all 
manner of episcopal jurisdiction in the said city and 
diocese." 

154. Donne died 5th December, 1558. By his will, after 
directing payment of his debts and certain legacies, he be- 
queathed the residue of his estate to Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 
With this residue a scholarship was founded, which continues 
to be enjoyed to the present day \iy the student called " Mr. 
Gabriel Donne's scholar." In the chapel of Trinity Hall, 
among the shields in the roof, are still to be seen the arms of 
the ex-abbot: ''^ Azure, a wolf rampant^ a chief argenC^ 

* Memorials of Cranmer, vol. i, p. 274, ed. 1812. 

f I am indebted for many of the facts here given relating to Donne's Life 
to the sketch given by Christopher Anderson in his Annals of the English 




I 



i 






155. He was honourably buried before the high altar in 
Old St. Paul's, four days after his death, and the inscription 
on his tomb has been fortunately preserved by Dugdale.* 

Mole sub hoc Gabrael Donnus detruditur, hujus 

Qui praeses Templi, Presbyter atque fuit. 
Mortua terreno clauduntur membra sepulchri 

Vivens coelicolo spiritus orbe manet, 
Ossibus urna locum dat, pulvere terra recumbit, 

Sydera sunt animae coelica tecta suse. 
Elius (adde Deus) menti tua gaudia clemens 

Corpus in Elizii pace quiescat. Amen. 

156. Donne was doubtless a time server, and trimmed his 
sails according to the varying breezes of the time. His share 
in the persecution of Tyndale cannot be excused, but he 
sinned with Sir Thomas More, Archbishop Cranmer, and 
others no less distinguished. The great blot in his memory 
must ever be his consenting to be forced upon the monks of 
Buckfast as their abbot, taking the solemn oaths he was com- 
pelled to by the rules of his order, well knowing that he was 
sent to the monastery for a purpose, and that in a short time 
he would be called upon to fulfil the undertaking he had 
doubtless given, betray the solemn trust committed to him, 
become a perjured man, and an accomplice in an act of 
sacrilege and robbery. 

157. At the time of the surrender, the following brethren 
were in the house : — 

The Abbot, Gabriel Donne. 
The Prior, Arnold Gye. 
John Cowle. 
John Watts. 
Richard Taylor. 
William Shapcott. 
Matthew Pryston. 
Richard Splat 
Thomas Gylle. 
William Avery. 
John Doyge. 

158. With the exception of the Prior, Arnold Gye, all these 
received pensions from £6 13s. 4d. paid to John Doyge, 
down to Thomas Gylle who had but £5. Why was the 

Bible. The author is strong in his denunciation of the ex-abbot, but all 
alleged against him is the part taken against Tyndale. 
♦ History of St. Paul's, ed. 1658, p. 61. 






I 



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i •''5 

>4 



■i 

■ 



•*•»»; 



m W > 






t A 



110 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



Ill 



prior left out? Was he less compliant than the others, or 
had he passed away before the pension list was completed and 
so spared the sight of the spoliation of his house. 

159. For spoliation soon came. The Abbey, the church, 
and the monastic buildings, with their sites and precincts, and 
the cemetery, grange, and farm buildings, were granted by 
the King to that avaricious knight. Sir Thomas Dennis, who 
not only succeeded in deceiving the monks, pretending to 
be their friend, and obtaining offices of trust, and of course 
emolument, from them, but who also by his subserviency and 
cringing made himself to be well thought of at Court. He 
was appointed steward for the management of the lands of 
several religious houses, and the reversion of the same office 
was granted his son. He also pretended to give valuable 
advice to the monks in the critical position in which they 
were placed, in return for which he succeeded in obtannng 
annuities from many of the abbeys and priories, and so well 
did he plav his game that he succeeded after their dis- 
solution in obtaining confirmation of such annuities from the 
Augmentation Court Dr. Oliver well says, *• if the mammon 
of iniquity could confer happiness, this very rich man must 
have been supremely happy." 

160. I have found a curious letter written by him which 
seems to imply that he had been charged with appropriating 
lead from the abbey buildings. It is endorsed " Sir Thomas 
Dennyes as touchinge vj. fodores of lead of the late P'ory of 
Buckefast." To show that the lead was worth taking a httle 
trouble about, I may mention that a fodder weighed upwards 
of two thousand pounds. 

S' Tiilmas Hvght wurshipfull af? my hartye coinenct doo pseve by M' 

iiennyes as Totyll ye be my verye good maist accordyng to^trouthe for 
touchinge vj fodder of leed supposed by Grove M' Arundell s vaunt that 

^ad orthc late I shulde have the custodi of. Wherfor trouthe I never sawe 
piorv of no suche leed nor psell therof and yf I had I am sure the 

mater is not so lyght but he wolde have had for his dis- 
chardge a byll of my hand of the recept or some other 
sufficient wytnesh to testyfye the same. I never was at 
Buckfast but one tyme synnes I dyd purchasse yt therfore yf 
yt maye please yo' maistership & the rest of my maysters in 
comyssion w*'' you to derect a comyssion in to the countreye 
to enquyre for the trouthe herof yf then shall appere that I or 
any one of my Servaunte to my knoledge or consent ever had 
any parte of the seid leed I wyll promes you by this my 
wrytting to geve you for everye fodder of leed a c ^ & in this 



IJuckcfast. 



wyes I trust you shall come to the knoledge of the trouthe & 
knowe hym to be as he is & I a trewe man good M"^ Barnes 
for youre Jentylnes in this behalfe shoued I shall thynk no 
lesse but my selfF alwayes bounden to gratefye you or any 
Frynd of yours duryng my lyef ^y^^ such plesures as shall lye 
in my huyll powre as knowethe the hollye Trynite to whome 

I coinyt vou. 

Yours assured 

Thom's Denys. 

To the right Worshipfuft master Willyam BarSs Esquyer 

geve this. 

(Land Revenue Records, Bund. 1392, File 31, No. 1.) 

161. The lead from the roof is also mentioned, with the 
five bells in the tower of the church, in an inventory dated 
29th November, 1555, headed *' A brieff Declaraton of all 
the Bell belonginge to late suppressed & dissolved Monasteries 
and Pryores in the foresaide counties made by Mathiewe 
Colthurst esquier late Auditor & Robt. Grove some tyme 
s'vant to S" Thomas Arundell Knight, late Receyvo'" there, 
at the comaundyment of Willm Barnes, Thomas Myldemay & 
John Wiseman Esquiers by their letters unto us directed." 

V. Buckfaste xxxiiij^'. v". 
A Brieff Declaracon of all the leadd belonginge to the 
late Monasteries and P'ories [as before]. 
Buckfast vj foders ccc lib. 

remayneng w^'' the farm s of the said 
houses as it apereth by report of Edmonde 
Wynter Esquyer. 
(Land Revenue Records, Bund. 1392, File 33, N. 1.) 

162. In 1553, besides the abbot, there were six monks still 
alive and in receipt of pensions, viz., Matthew Preston, John 
Watts, Richard Taylor, William Avery, and Richard Splate, 
5/. 6s. Sd. each, and Thomas Sylle, 5L* 

163. There is little interest in tracing the subsequent 
history of tlie Abbey lands. From Sir Thomas Dennis, with 
the manor of Buckfast, they descended to his son. Sir Robert, 
whose daughter Margaret is said to have married Sir Arthur 
Mainwaring.t In 1629, according to Chappie, quoted by 
Dugdale and Lysons, they were in the possession of Sir 
Richard Baker, the historian. The property passing to the 

* Brown Willis, Hist. Abbeys, vol. ii. p. 60. 
f See Pole's Collections. 



r 



?i 



122 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



family of D'Oleys, it was by them dismembered and sold 
off in parcels. The actual site of the Abbey was purchased 
by Mr. Berry, by whom it was sold to Mr. William Searle 
BenthalJ, and it is now the property of Dr. James Gale, of 
Dovescourt, Newton Abbot. 

164. Before 1806, when the remaining portions of the 
buildings were almost entirely destroyed, the ruins were very 
extensive, and, doubtless, the plan could have been made out 
without difficulty. Westcote and Risdon speak of the 
*' skeleton of a huge body whereby may be conceived what 
bigness once it bore, whose ruins may move the beholders 
both to wonder and pity."* Buck's view is dated 1734, but 
nothing certain can be learnt from it It appears that the 
church was as usual chancel, transepts, and long nave, the 
chapter-house on the south, and the conventual buildings 
running down towards the river, the normal plan of the 
Cistercians being followed. (See Buckland Abbey, par 12.) 

165. In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1796, Mr. James 
Laskey gives an account of the ruins, which, although very 
unsatisfactory to an archaeologist, is worth rescuing from the 
pages of the old periodical. Of course we are not bound to 
agree with all Mr. Laskey's speculations, some portions of his 
story being, to say the least, curious. 

After saying that the ruins were of great extent and 
worthy of a more particular description than he could give, 
the author proceeds : — 

" There now remain of this magnificent ruin two arches 
which appear to have been the entrance, and some ruins on 
a large scale which we took for the lodge. The arches are 
situated one behind the other and stand across the road 
leading from Buckfastleigh to Ashburton ; the iron staples for 
gates to hang on still remain and are of great bigness, which 
led us to think they were of massy structure. The ruins of 
what we took to be the lodge stand on the eastern side, its 
length about twenty paces, breadth eight paces (not being sup- 
plied for a minute measurement we were obliged to content 
ourselves with it thus roughly, taking care to diminish rather 
than exaggerate). On the same side are several apartments, 
one of which is inhabited, another is converted into a pound- 
house, in which stands a moorstone trough of great bulk, for 
the purpose of breaking apples for the pound. The following 
measurement I received from a learned gentleman who has 
paid great attention to these ruins. The diameter of this 

* Bisdon, p. 152; 






BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



113 



stone is 9 feet 4 inches, depth 3 feet 6 inches, one-half of which 
is sunk in the ground ; the supposed weight before it was 
hollowed he computes must amount to above 100 tons. It is 
of the granite kind and affords matter of surprise by what 
means it was brought there, stones of that quality not being 
to be found within the distance of many miles ; round the 
abbey being one continued limerock, which is worked at 
many places to a depth, height, and extent surprising, and 
forming a vast cavern at once terrific and beautiful, which 
proves an inexhaustible fund of gain to the owner. The 
remainder of these ruins are situated in an orchard on the 
western side of the road, at the bottom of which runs with 
silent murmur the River Dart, seemingly regretting the 
downfall of the abbey. The first thing that presents itself, 
tradition says, was the abbot's cellar, which is entered by a 
small Gothic gateway and is about twenty-eight paces long and 
twelve wide arched overhead. « * ♦ ♦ 

At one end remain a few steps which led to the ruin above, 
which our guide told us was the abbot's kitchen ; it is now 
converted into a kitchen garden. At the south end is the 
skeleton of a set of apartments, which appear to have been 
the cells of the monks, which was approached by winding 
steps, fifty-one of which now remain. It is of particular form, 
having, as well as we could guess, seven sides. The immense 
bushes of ivy, dropping in rich festoons, almost buried its 
form. On removing some of these we could plainly observe 
the holes in which the joists and sleepers rested for support on 
the flooring, from which we judged the rooms to be about 
6 feet in height in the clear, one above the other. These we 
were told solely belonged to the abbot. Joining this was 
their court of judicature and judgment seat, and behind a 
dungeon for those that by their offences were thought worthy 
of the same. On the north-east side appear the walls and foun- 
dation of this once spacious and splendid seat of superstition ; 
the abbey church and the remains of its tower all lying in 
such massy fragments, that it is scarcely to be conceived by 
what power so vast a fabrick could be disjointed. The walls 
appear to be of the thickness of 9 or 10 feet and entirely 
composed of small stones in layers and a compost of lime and 
sand, which we supposed to have been thrown on these layers 
hot, after the method antiently used in such large buildings, 
which incorporating together formed a mass as solid as the 
native rock. The ruins of this church appear to be about 
250 feet in length, and the ruins of the tower towards the 




114 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 






H 



south seem like huge and vast rocks piled on one another in 
extensive confusion — 

by Time's fell hand defac'd, 
Tte rich prond cost of outworn bnry'd age. — Shakspeare.** 

166. The author then goes on to say that, as stone for 
building is plentiful in the neighbourhood, the ruins will in 
all probability continue unmolested for ages; a prophecy 
unfortunately not fulfilled. (A Ramble on Dartmoor, by J. L. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1796, vol. Ixvi. p. 194.) 

What our author here calls the cellar and the seven-sided 
building apparently still remain, the latter being what is now 
called the Abbot's Tower. It is unquestionably a domestic 
building of some kind, but nothinj; more certain I think can 
be said. It is square, of three stories, with a cellar under. 
In it are fireplaces and garderobes, with a well, and a stair- 
case with landings to every floor; the entrance appears to 
have been from the south on the first floor. 

167. The great barn of the grange remains, and tlie arches, 
of apparently an entrance, but the gatehouse is gone. In 
the lawn on the eastern side of tlie house graves have been 
found, and here was probably the cemetery. The foundations 
of the present house, erected [ibout fifty years since, are said 
to be upon vaulted work of Early-English character. The 
greater part of the materials of the old buildings were used in 
the erection of the adjoining mill, which occupies the site of 
some of the conventual buildings. 

168. The arms of the Abbey are Sable, a crozier in pale 
argent, the crook or, surmounted by a stag's head caboshed, 
of the second, horned gules. Leland gives a sketch in his 
Collectanea. I know of two seals only belonging to the Abbey, 
the first, appended to the surrender deed, is small, and shows 
the Blessed Virgin Mary and Holy Child under a canopy, with 
the legend " S. Conventus Bucfestrie." The second is a 
counter-seal of the abbot — in the centre an arm grasping a 
crozier, the legend " Sioill. Abb. Buckfesta^Ji." 

169. Let us now see what the various possessions of the 
Abbey were. To commence with those we find in Domesday, 
let us try to identify the manors there mentioned. The first 
paragraph relating to each is a translation from the Exeter 
Book, the second from the Exchequer Book, see paragraph 69. 
The first is headed " The Land of the Church of the Abbot 
of Bulfestre in Devonshire," the second " The Land of the 
Church of Bucfestre." 



BUCKFAST abbey. 



115 



170. Petkockstow. " The abbot has a manor* which is 
called Petrocestova, which the abbot Aluuin held in that 
day when King Edward was alive and dead, and it paid geld 
for one virgate and a half. These can be ploughed by five 
teams. From thence the abbot has in demesne half a virgate 
and one plough,t and the villeins one virgate and two ploughs. 
There the abbot has six villeins and one bordar and two 
serfs and four oxen % [cows ?] and twenty sheep, and three 
furlongs of wood in length and one furlong and a half in 
breadth, and six acres of meadow and eight furlongs of 
pasture in length, and five furlongs in breadth, and worth 
by the year fifteen shillings, and when he received it it was 
valued at just as much." 

^ " The church of Buckfestre holds Petrochestov. In the 
time of King Edward it paid geld for one virgate of land 
and a half. There is land for five ploughs. In demesne is 
one plough and two serfs, and six villeins, and one bordar 
with two ploughs. There six acres of meadow pasture eight 
furlongs long and five furlongs broad. Formerly and now 
worth fifteen shillings." Exchequer Book. 

The name has changed but little during the eight hundred 
years that have elapsed since the great book was com- 
piled, although it is also known as Stow St. Petrock and 
Heanton. 

The return of the jurors recorded in the Hundred 
Roll, temp. Edward I. shows that the abbot had a gallows 
there. 

Shortly before the dissolution the Valor § shows: — 

♦ Mansionem. This word properly means a habitation, capital dwelling, 
plot of ground, on which several houses are built. 

t Mr. William Basevi Sanders is of opinion that in Domesday, whenever 
"car" stands alone, it is intended for « carvca'' or some case of that noun, 
and that, whenever '* carucata " is meant to be designated, " car " is always 

followed by « terrts," or is written in full. "Terra est car," and similar 

entries should therefore be read as meaning that there was as much arable 
land as so many ploughs could till. 

t Animalia. 

§ This was a survey taken in consequence of Parliament having passed 
a measure granting to the King the first-fruits of all spiritualities and a 
tenth of the possessions of the Church. The instructions to the Commis- 
sioners, dated 30th January, 1536, were to ascertain the whole and just 
and yearly value of all possessions, lands, tenements, profits, &c., as well 
spiritual as temporal, pertaining to any manner of dignity, monastery, church, 
parsonage, vicarage, or other dignity through England, Wales, Berwick, and 
Calais. 



1 



Q 2 



W '^T"* ••^'^m'^yy^mn • -*>.>.« 



T 



B 



116 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



£ 8. d. 

5 6 \\\ 

3 I 8 

9 6J 

1 8 



3 2 lOJ 



13 


9 


01 


7 


4 


6 


3 


1 


8 





3 


9 


1 


6 


8 



Maneriuin de Patrikstowe : — 
Redditus assise liberorum teuencium et 

custumariorum .... 

Terrarum bartone .... 

Auxiliorum 

Operum custumariorum 

De finibus terrarum cum perquisitis 

curie et aliis proficuis ejusdem raanerii 

per annum communibus annis . 

And the Ministers' accounts give : — • 
Petrockystowe Keditus tam liberorum 
quam custumariorum tenentium 

Firma manerii 

Perquisita curie .... 

Porcio 

and the rector paid £1 6s. 8d. to the abbey. 

The manor appears to have been merged in that of Heanton 
Sackville in the same parish, and it has descended, as shown 
by Lysons, with the advowson of the church, to Lord Clinton 
whose nephew, the present baron, now enjoys them. ' 

171. AissA. There are two Ashs mentioned in Domesday 
as belonging to the Abbey. One is doubtless Ash the villa o-e 
in the parish of South Brent, but the locality of the other *ls 
very uncertain. 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Aissa, which 
paid geld for one virgate and a half in that day when King 
Edward was alive and dead. These can be ploughed by 
three teams. From thence the abbot has in demesne half a 
virgate and one plough, and the villeins one virgate and two 
ploughs. There the abbot has five villeins, and three bordars 
and three serfs, and ten oxen, and forty sheep, and six acres of 
wood and six acres of meadow, and three furlongs of pasture 
in length and breadth, and it is worth by the year twenty 
shillings, and, when he received it, it was worth ten shillings.*' 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Aissa, which the 
abbot Aluuin held in that day in which King Edward was 
alive and dead, and paid geld for a hide and a half This ten 
teams can plough. Thence the abbot has in demesne a 
virgate and a half and one plough, and the villeins have a 
hide and a half, a virgate, and five ploughs. There the abbot 
has eight villeins, and eight bordars, and six serfs, and nine 
oxen, and sixty-eight sheep, and eleven goats, and three fur- 



1- 



* 

I 




BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



117 



longs in length of wood and one in breadth, and four acres of 
meadow and one mile of pasture in length and a half in 
breadth, and worth by the year thirty shillings, and, when the 
abbot received it, it was worth just the same." 

" The same church holds AissE. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one virgate of land and a half 
There is land for five ploughs. In demesne is one plough 
and three serfs and five villeins, and three bordars with two 
ploughs. There six acres of meadow and six acres of wood, 
pasture three furlongs in length and breadth. Formerly ten 
shillings, now worth twenty shillings." Exchequer Book. 

" The same church holds AissE. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one hide and a half There is land 
for ten pl«)ughs. In demesne is one plough and six serfs, and 
eight villeins and nine bordars with five ploughs. There four 
acres of meadow. Pasture one mile [leuca] long and half-a- 
mile broad ; wood three furlongs long and one furlong broad. 
Formerly and now worth thirty shillings." Exchequer Book. 

172. Lime or Limet, as the Exchequer Book has it, I am 
unable to trace. 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Lm^, and it paid 
geld in that day in which King Edward was alive and dead 
for one hide. This seven teams can plough. Thence the 
abbot has one virgate and one plough in demesne, and the 
villeins have three virgates aud six ploughs. There the abbot 
has ten villeins and fourteen bordars, and four serfs and nine 
oxen, and four pigs and seventy-two sheep, and four acres of 
small wood, and three acres of meadow, and it is worth by 
the year fifty shillings.'* 

" The same church holds Limet. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one hide. There is land for eight 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and four serfs and ten 
villeins and fourteen bordars with six ploughs. There three 
acres of meadow, and four acres of small wood. It is worth 
fifty shillings." Exchequer Book. 

173. Dona, Downe, or Done, is Down St. Mary. Tlie Manor 
and Water Mill, Barton Estate, Donne and CliflPe Wood, with 
the advowson and rectory of Downe Church, belonged to the 
house at its fall. Sele, Zeal Monachorum, is near it, and 
they are entered in the accounts together. The latter is the 
manor mentioned in the Hundred KoU as having come to the 
abbey by the gift of King Cnut. 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Dona, which 
paid geld for two hides in that day in which King Edward 



* 



i 



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I <\ 



-»»- 



■Omh 



W li r i II ' »' *ltm.imt^mmm^tk 



118 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



119 



was alive and dead. This ten teams can plough. Thence 
the abbot has in demesne half a hide and one plough and the 
villeins one hide and a half and five ploughs. There the 
abbot has twelve villeins, and nine bordars, and seven serfs, 
and six oxen, and four pigs, and sixty-six sheep, and eight 
furlongs of small wood, and eight acres of meadow, and twelve 
acres of pasture, and it is worth by the year three pounds. " 

" The same church holds Done. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for two hides. There is land for ten 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and seven serfs and 
twelve villeins and nine bordars with five ploughs. There 
eight acres meadows and twelve acres of pasture and seven 
furlongs of small wood. It is worth three pounds." Ex- 
chequer Book. 

Tlie Valor gives : — 

Manerium de Sele et Donne — 



Redditus assise liberorum tenencium . 

Custumariorum tenencium 

Terrarum bartons .... 

Firma molendini . • . . 

De finibus terrarum cum perquisitis 
curie et aliis proficuis ejusdem 
manerii per annum communibus 
annis ...... 

Inde solutum Priori Sancti Johannis 
Exonie et successoribus suis de 
quodam annual! redditu per annum 



£ 8. d. 

17 3J 
15 19 8| 
11 17 9 . 

1 10 



6 4 5i 



1 10 



Et remanet clare . 


34 19 


2i 


And the Ministers* accounts — 






Sele et Downe Redditus liberorum 


£ s. 


d. 


tenentium 

Sele Redditus custumariorum tenentium 
Downe Redditus custumariorum tenen- 


17 
4 17 


3ob. 
4ob. 


tium ...... 

Sele et Downe Firma certe terre vocate 

le barton ground . ... 
Perquisita Curie .... 
Sele et Downe Porcio de rectorie 


12 12 

11 17 
8 
2 13 


4 ob. q. 

9 
9 
4 



174. Trusham. "The abbot has a manor which is called 
Trisma, which paid geld for one hide that day in which King 
Edward was alive and dead. This four teams can plough. 



Thence the abbot has in demesne one virgate and one plough and 
the villeins three virgates and three ploughs. There the abbot 
has four villeins, and nine bordars, and ten serfs, and six oxen, 
and nine pigs, and one hundred and three sheep, and twenty-two 
goats, and sixteen acres of wood, and three acres of meadow, 
and ten of pasture, and it is worth by the year thirty shillings, 
and when he received it it was worth twenty-five shillings." 

" The same church holds Trisma. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one hide. There is land for three 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and ten serfs and four 
villeins, and nine bordars with three ploughs. There three 
acres of meadow and ten acres of pasture and sixteen acres of 
wood. Formerly twenty-five shillings, now worth thirty 
shillings." Exchequer Book. 

Trisma is Trusham, granted by the King to a Southcote, in 
whose family it continued for several generations, and is now 
the property of Sir Lawrence Palk. 
The Valor gives : — 

Trisme. £ 

R<3dditus assise liberorum tenencium . 
Custumariorum tenentium ... 5 
Ac terrarum bartone . . . .5 
De quibus terra cum perquisitis curie 
et aliis proficuis ejusdem manerii per 
annum communibus annis 



s. 
7 
9 
5 



d. 
2 

7 



2 13 7 



13 15 4^ 



7 2 

10 14 10 ob. 

1 lib' cere. 



Ministers' Accounts. 
Trisme — 
Redditus liberorum tenentium . 
Redditus eustumai'iorum tenentium 

Porcio 

175. AiSERSTONE. " The abbot has one manor which is 
called Haiserstona, which paid geld for one ferling and 
a-half and three acres in that day in which King Edward 
was alive and dead. There the abbot has one villein who 
pays forty pence a year." 

" Tlie same church holds Aiserstone. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one ferling and a half and three acres 
of land. There one villein pays forty pence." Exchequer Book. 
Aiserstone, it has been suggested, is Ascerton in the 
parish of Sidmouth, but there is no evidence that I can find, 
showing that the abbey ever had any land there, and we may 
find it much nearer the abbey, Staverton being perhaps the 
place, the monks having a mill there in later years. 



;»-- 



f A 



■•^ 



^ .tnm* i m 



120 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



ri. 



With reference to Staverton the Valor gives : — 

Staverton — 
Molendinura ibidem valet per annum £ s. d. 

ultra 6 13 4 

Solutum decano et capitulo Exoniae et 

successoribus suis per annum . .368 



Ministers' Accounts : — 
Stafarton — 
Redditus Molendini 



10 



176. Heathfield. " The abbot has a manor which is called 
Hetfelt, which the abbot Aluuin held in that day in which 
King Edward was alive and dead, and paid geld for two hides. 
These twelve teams are able to plough ; from thence the abbot 
has in demesne half a hide and one plough, and the villeins 
have one hide and five ploughs. There the abbot has ten 
villeins and nine bordars and six serfs, and eleven oxen, and 
five pigs, and sixty sheep, and sixteen goats, and two acres of 
small wood, and forty acres of pasture, and it is worth by 
the year forty shillings, and, when the abbot received it, it 
was worth thirty shillings." 

" The same church holds Hetfeld. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for two hides. There is land for twelve 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and six serfs, and ten 
villeins and nine bordars with five ploughs. There forty acres 
of pasture and two acres of small wood." Exchequer Book. 

Hetfelt or Hetfeld or Hethfylde is the manor of Heath - 
field, in the parish of Aveton Gifl^ard. Here, it is stated in 
the Hundred Roll, the abbot had a gallows, and conse- 
quently power of life and death. 



The Valor gives : — 

Manerium de Hethfyld — 

Redditus assise tam liberorum tenen- 
tium quam custumariorum 

Terrarum bartone .... 

Auxiliorum ..... 

Operum custumariorum tenendum . 

De finibus terre cum perquisitis curiae 
et aliis proficuis ejusdem manerii 
per annnm communibus annis 



s. 



17 16 
12 9 



1 
1 



6 
10 



74 

9 

8 

H 



2 1 9 



35 4 11 







mmm^BrntmiB. 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



121 



Ministers' Accounts. 

Hethfylde — 

Redditus liberorum tenentium . 
Venditio operum cum auxilio tenen- 
tium ...... 

Redditus custumariorum tenentium . 

Redditus terr' berton' 

Perquisita curie .... 



£ s. d. • 

4 18 11 

2 17 7 ob. 

7 12 8 

18 18 10 

1 1 



177. Bulfestra. "The abbot has one manor which is 
called Bulfestra, and is the head of the abbacy, and that 
never paid geld. Tliere the abbot has one smith [or carpenter] 
and ten serfs, who have two ploughs, and there the abbot has 
three pigs and one mile in length of wood and a half in 

breadth." 

" Bucfestre is the head of the abbacy. It never paid 
geld. There is one blacksmith and ten serfs, with two 
ploughs. Wood one mile long and half a mile broad." 
(Exchequer Book.) 

Bulfestre and Bucfestre, of course, stand for the caput 
abhaticB. At Buckfastleigh there appear to have been four 
manors, those of Buckfast Abbey, Buckfast, Brooke Main- 
bow, and Kilbenland. The Earl of Macclesfield and Dr. 
Gale hold these now, or what portions of them remain. 

The Valor gives, 

Manerium de Buckfastleigh cum Kelbury. 



Redditus assise tam terrarum domini- 
calium cum pastura bosci circa man- 
cionem dicti monasterii . 

Ac piscaria de Dert . 

Quam liberorum tenendum 

Ac custumariorum tenencium 

Firma molendini 

Incrementum redditus 

Finis terre 

Ac perquisita curie per annum com- 
munibus annis . . . . 



£ s. d. 

8 

1 
4 6 

50 11 

4 

2 7 4 
4 I 0) 

1 18 7i 

71 12 5 



B 



r I 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



123 



r> ' 



, 1 22 THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

Manerium de Kylbury, 

Redditus assise tam liberorum tenen- 

ciam quam custumariorum cum £ s. d. 
molendino ibidem valet per annum . 18 15 9^ 

Maynebowe. 

Redditus assise tam liberorum tenen- 
cium quam custumariorum tenen- 



cium 



De finibus terre cum perquisitis curie 
et aliis proficuis ejusdem manerii per 
annum communibus annis 






1 14 3J 
3 17 Oi 



Ministers' Accounts. 

Buckfastleigh. Scitus cum terris pratis 
pascuis et pasturis .... 

Redditus liberorum tenentium . 

Redditus custumariorum tenentium . 

Firma duorum molendinorum aquat' 
granat' ..... 

Kenynton, alias Lowertowne. Redditus 
custumariorum tenentium 

Buckfastleigh. Perquisita curie 

Kylbury. Redditus liberorum tenentium 

Redditus custumariorum tenentium . 

Maynbow. Redditus liberorum tenen- 
tium ...... 

Redditus custumario^'um tenentium . 

Perquisitae curie ^ . . . 

Buckfastleigh. Porcio 

Firma Rectorie 



11 3 6 

4 6 

30 1 7 

4 1 

20 8 11 ob. 

6 6 8 

1 ob. 

20 12 



» 



» 



1 4 
18 
2 
16 8 
11 13 4 




4 
4 



178. NoTONA. " The abbot has one manor which is called 
NoTONA, which the Abbot Alwin held in that day in which King 
Edward was alive and dead, and it paid geld for two hides. 
These ten teams are able to plough. From thence he has 
half a hide and one plough in demesne and the villeins one 
hide and a half and five ploughs. There the abbot has nine 
villeins and twelve bordars and six serfs and four oxen and 
three pigs and seventy sheep, and two furlongs of wood in 
length and one in breadth, and two acres of meadow and 



' 



twenty acres of pasture. This is worth forty shillings, and 
when the abbot received it thirty shillings." 

" The same church holds Notone. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for two hides. There is land for ten 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and six serfs and nine 
villeins and twelve bordars with five ploughs. There two 
acres of meadow and twenty acres of UtSre. Wood two 
furlongs long and one broad. Formerly thirty shillings, 
now worth forty shillings." (Exchequer Book.) 

To this place we can assign no modern name. 

179. Chereforda may be Churstowe, although this is 
only a guess. 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Chereforda, 
which the Abbot Alwin held in that day in which King 
Edward was alive and dead, and paid geld for one hide. 
This eight teams are able to plough. From thence the abbot 
has one virgate and one plough in demesne and the villeins 
three virgates and three ploughs. There the abbot has seven 
villeins and six bordars and four serfs and six oxen and 
forty-four sheep and two acres of meadow and twenty acres 
of pasture. This is worth thirty shillings, and when the abbot 
received it twenty shillings." 

" The same church holds Chereford. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for one hide. There is land for eight 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and four serfs and 
seven villeins and six bordars with three ploughs. There two 
acres of meadow and twenty acres of pasture. Formerly 
twenty shillings, now thirty shillings." (Exchequer Book.) 

The Valor gives, 

Manerium de Churchstowe — 



Redditus assise liberorum tenendum . 
18 libre cere et dimidium 

Custumariorum tenendum 

Terrarum dominicalium 

De finibus terre cum perquisitis curie 
et aliis proficuis ejusdem manerii 
per annum communibus annis 



£ s. 
2 14 


d. 

Si 


17 7 
21 


8 




3 13 5i 



£44 15 9} 
1 8 libre cere et dim. 



2b 



• I 




■.■^ — ^Ul^ ' 



124 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Kyngeshngg— 

Kedditus assise liberorum tenencium 
et convencionariorum 

Pirma molendinorum 

Exitus mercatorum et nundinarum 

Ac perquisita curie per annum com- 
munibus annis .... 

Inde solutum Philippo Champernon 
militi et heredibus suis pro redditu 
gurgitis molendini flxati super 
terram suam apud Dodbrooke per 



£ s. d. 

8 8 Oi 

3 6 8 

5 

18 



annum . 



2 



Et remanet clare . £17 10 84 



Ministers' Accounts. 

Churstowe — 
Redditus tarn liberorum quam custu- 
mariorum tenentium . 

Kyngesbrigge- 

Bedditus custumariorum tenentium . 

Exitus mercat' sive nundinarum 

Redditus liberorum tenentium . 

Perquisita curie .... 

Churcbstowe cum capella de Kings- 
bridge — Firma rectorie . 



s. 



9 
5 
4 



1 
6 

4 



18 



d. 



3 a 2q. 



8 
8 

8ob. 
6 



32 14 6 



180. Brent. " The abbot has one manor which is called 
Brenta, which the abbot Alwin held in that day in which King 
Edward was alive and dead, and paid geld for two hides. These 
ten teams can plough. From thence the abbot has half a 
hide and one plough in demesne, and the villeins one hide 
and a half and five ploughs. There the abbot has ten 
villeins, and eight bordars, and five serfs, and fourteen oxen, 
and fiftv-five sheep, and five acres of wood, and four acres 
of meaaow, and thirty acres of pasture. This is worth forty 
shillings, and when the abbot received it thirty shillings." 

" The abbot has one manor which is called Brenta, which 
the abbot held in that day in which King Edward was alive 
and dead, and paid geld for two hides. This six teams are able 
to plough. Thence the abbot has half a hide and one plough 
in demesne, and the villeins one hide and a half and three 
ploughs. There the abbot has eight villeins and six bordars, 
and four serfs and eleven oxen, and seventy sheep, and thirty 



1 



t 



1 



I 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



125 



goats, and one mile of wood in length and one furlong in 
width, and two acres [of meadow]* and one mile of pasture 
in length and a half in breadth. This is worth thirty 
shillings, and when the abbot received it twenty shillings." 

" The same church holds Brenta. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for two hides. There is land for ten 
ploughs. In demesne is one plough and five serfs, and ten 
villeins and eight bordars with five ploughs. There four 
acres of meadow and four acres of woo^, and thirty acres of 
pasture. Formerly thirty shillings, now worth forty shillings." 

" The same church holds Brent. In the time of King 
Edward it paid geld for two hides. There is land for six 
ploughs. In demesne is half a plough and four serfs, and 
eight villeins and six bordars with three ploughs. There two 
acres of meadow, pasture one mile long and half a mile 
broad, wood one mile long and one furlong broad. Formerly 
twenty shillings, now thirty shillings." (Exchequer Book.) 

The two Brentas stand for manors, both probably in tho 
parish of South Brent. The Brent property appears in the 
valor and Ministers' accounts, as under: — 

The Valor gives, 

Manerium de Brent. 

Redditus assise liberorum tenentium . 
Et custumariorum tenencium 
Firma molendini . . .* . 
Piscaria ...... 

Incrementum redditus 

De finibus terrarum cum perquisitis 

curie et aliis proficuis ejusdem manerii 

per annum communibus annis 



£ 8. 


d. 


8 6 


7i 


87 17 


3 


. 6 16 


8 


3 


4 


9 17 


H 


11 5 


U 



Ministers' Accounts. 

Brent. Redditus liberorum tenentium 
manerii . . . , . 

Redditus custumariorum et conventio- 
nariorum tenentium 

Brent. Porcio de vicarie . 

Brent. Firma rectorie 



121 6 7f 



8 17 3 



102 15 

4 

18 2 



7q. 


10 



181. I have now been through the whole of the land 
mentioned in Domesday, and shown as nearly as possible that 
it continued to be held down to the time of the Dissolution. 

• Omitted, but see Exchequer Book. 



t 



^ 1 ' 



... ♦ **^ 



■ mm...mj ^ l ii W" * « ' »■!■* ' - '■ « t ' ■ I' W" ■■ ' * ' ..P'W I. .'.a'... 



-■ 'At. ' ^ — , , I W.vM"»IJ -iHiMliai«»Si.- 



'ri--'iii'mii»PJ.'.-..,i..':. «' ■' 



126 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Besides the above the Abbey held some other land scattered 
through the county, mentioned thus : — 

In hundreto Mertone .... Abb de Bulfestra i 
virga. Fol. 65b., p. 59. 

In hundreto chridiatone . . . Dehisht* Osbuusepg iiii. 
hid & dim. & abbas de bulfestra dim' hida. Fol. 66b, p. 60. 

In hundredo Taintone . . . . et abbas bulfestrensis 
fertium [ferlium ?] & dim\ Fol. 69b, p. 64. 

In hundredo dippeford . . . . et abbas bulfestrensis 
ii. hid. Fol. 69b, p. 65. 

182. Of course the property had greatly increased in 
value since Domesday, but that was owing to the general 
progress of the country, and the care bestowed upon it by 
its owners, but it cannot fail to be noticed that the additions 
made during the time between the Great Survey and the 
Dissolution were few and unimportant. They were, following 
still the Valor and Ministers' Accounts, as follows : — 

183. Palston, in South Brent, probably belonged to one of 
tlie Domesday manors, thus mentioned in the Valor : — 

£ 8. d. 
Redditu bertone ibidem per annum .300 
And in the Ministers' Accounts — 

Redditus terrarum dominicalium vocat' 

Palston 3 

184. Engleburne, Ingleborne, or Engelbourne, is in the 
parish of Harberton. It was leased by Gabriel Donne to 
Sir Phillip Champemowne for a term of sixty years, and 
subject to this was sold by the Crown. About the end of the 
last century it was divided into parcels and sold. 

Valor. 

Manerium de Engleburne. 

£> 8. d. 
Redditus assise liberorum tenencium . 9 

1 libra cere. 
Custumariorum tenencium in Totnes, 

Aisheberyngton, Churston, quam 
Engleburne predicta . . . 10 7 2 

et 1 libra cere. 

Ac terrarum bartone . . . 5 13 4 

De finibus terrarum cum perquisitis 
curie et aliis proficuis ejusdem 
manerii communibus annis . . 2 5 0|^ 

18 14 6i 

2 libre cere. 



• 






BUCKFAST ABBEY. 127 

Ministers' Accounts. 

Engleburne — £ s. d. 

Redditus liberorum tenentium . . 12 1 
Redditus tarn custumariorum quam 

conventionariorum tenentium . .110 6 

Firma manerii . . . . 5 13 4 

185. Bromston or BrowTiston is a manor in the parish of 
Modbury and was given to the abbey by John de Morville. 
On the Dissolution Sir Thomas Dennis secured this for 

himself. 

Valor. 
Brounston — 
Redditus assise custumariorum tenen- 
cium ibidem per annum . . .510^ 

1 par. cirotecarum. 



Ministers' Accounts. 



Bromston — 
Redditus assise 



5 10 ob. 



186. BoTTOXBURGH, Bottokysburgh, or Battisborough, is a 
manor in the parish of Holbeton. 

Valor. 
Bottokysburgh — 
Redditus assise liberorum tenencium . 
Custumariorum tenencium 
. Terrarum bartone .... 
Firma molendini ... 
Ac perquisita curie per annum com- 
munibus annis .... 



Ministers' Accounts. 
Bottoxburgh — 
Redditus liberorum tenentium . 
Redditus conventionariorum tenentium 
Firma capitalis mesuagii . 
Perquisita curie .... 

* 187. Chyscombe was a piece or parcel of land in the 
parish of Dene Prior, of the yearly value of 6s. 8d. both in 
the Valor and the Ministers' Accounts. 



1 


15 


H 


6 


6 


8 


12 


5 


4 


2 











5 


H 


22 


12 


9 


1 


15 


5ob 


7 


9 





13 


3 








4 


8 



j i j 9 V 't "J ' g ,■ 






gT ' ""ft^ Its ' l.ltg " 



»' ■ M ^V ' ' 



>- - ' - -, TT— ^ 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



129 



128 



1534. 
26 Hen. VII. 
cap. 3. 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



188. At Spychewyke, in the manor of the same name, in 
the parish of Widdecomhe, the abbey had two tenements 
returned at an annual rent of 28s. both in the Ministers' 
Accounts and in the Valor. 

189. North Bo VEY. Here was a tenement included in the 
Valor and Ministers* Accounts as producing an annual rent 
of lOs. 

190. Hoo or Hooe, in the parish of Plymstock, described 
in the Valor as being below the parish of Plympton. Here 
was a tenement entered in both accounts as bJeing worth 8s. 
per annum. 

191. Plympton. Here the Abbey had a garden, the rent 
being returned in the Ministers' Accounts and Valor at 5s. 
yearly. 

192. Exeter. Like most of the other abbeys, Buckfast 
had a house in the city for the residence of the abbot, the 
successive owners of which are traced by Dr. Oliver. In 
the Valor and Ministers' Accounts it is entered as producing 
only 6d. per annum for firewood. The reason of this probably 
was, that it had been leased for a money payment, this small 
amount being reserved. It was not until 1543 that the King 
disposed of it. 

193. BiCATON, a village in the parish of Broad hempston, 
according to Oliver, belonged to the house, but I have not 
met with any mention of it in any original document, nor 
does the name or parish occur in either the Valor or Ministers' 
Accounts 

194. We also find enumerated in the Valor the usual pay- 
ments made out of the annual revenue, amounting to £15 1 6s. 
There was a corrody of £3 per annum to James Knottysford. 

1 95. The spiritualities, which are entered separately, amount 
with the pensions paid to £68 Hs. 3d. and one pound of wax 
from the Kectory of Petrockstow. 

196. Taking then the figures as they stand in the Valor, 
we find that the total annual income of the Abbey in 1534 
was— £ 8. d. 

Rents, &c 430 19 7} 

Spiritualities. . . . 68 14 3 



out of which payments- 
Temporalities 
Spiritualities 



15 16 

17 6 8 



499 13 10} 



33 2 8 



£466 11 2] 



I 



Thus leaving the total nett income £466 lis. 2|d., besides 
twenty pounds of wax and one pair of gloves, an income 
larger than any other Cistercian house in Devon. And yet, 
unlike some monastic establishments, there appears to have 
been no greed of wealth, no undue accumulation of riches ; 
the monks did their best with their land, and often had, as we 
have seen, to struggle to maintain their rights; but in the 
centuries which elapsed between the Conquest and the Disso- 
lution it cannot be said that they had been covetous; and 
the sneer of Richard Coeur de Lion, when he told Fulke that 
of his three daughters, Covetousness, Pride, and Lust, he 
would bestow the first upon the white monks, could not 
apply to the monks of Buckfast. 

197. Besides being the chief farmers of the day, the Cis- 
tercians were great promoters of the industrial arts. It has 
recently been discovered that the Cistercians were the prede- 
cessors of the ironmasters of the nineteenth century, the 
monks of Kirkstead and Louth Park Abbey having pro- 
moted iron-mining and smelting, and carried on the work on 
an extensive scale. 

Rather than covetous, the Cistercians should be called 
thrifty and industrious, developing the resources of the 
neighbourhood in which they settled, and endeavouring to 
make two blades of grass grow where only one grew before. 
It would be a pleasant task, and the results valuable, to trace 
out the various occupations in which these monks engaged, 
and what effects their labours have had upon the commercial 
and agricultural interests of the country. 

198. Buckfastleigh owes what prosperity it has to the 
monks of Buckfast, for the Cistercians were the great wool 
traders of the times in which they lived, and the owners of 
the large mills, some of which are built up with the materials 
of the Abbey and its belongings, are but carrying out in the 
same locality, in other ways, the work of former years. 

Yon may break, you may shatter the vase if you will, 
But the scent of the roses will cling round it still ; 

and so, when we use the "Abbot's Way" across the breezy 

moor, we think of those busy men who often trod it, and 

carried their merchandise along it ; and when we follow the 

" Monk's Path " by the Dart, flowing on as it did long 

years ago. 

Giving a gentle kiss to every sedge, 
It overtaketh in its pilgrimage ; 

the lives of those who prayed and laboured, laboured and 

s 



* • A 



130 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



prayed, hard by, must occupy our thoughts, and " Abbot's 
Way " and " Monk*8 Path," and the moor and the river, tell 
us more, and do more to keep alive the memory, of the old 
dwellers in the Abbey of Bulfestre, than the few scanty re- 
mains of the buildings which they raised. 



APPENDIX (A). 

List of the Abbots of Buckfast. 



Name. 



Alwine . 
Eustachius 
William . 
Nicholas . 
Michael . 
William . 
Howell 
Durandus . 
Henry 
Simon 
Kobert 
Peter , 

Robert . 
Stephen . 
John de Churstowe 
William Gififard. 
Philip 

Robert Simons . 
WiUiam Paderston 
William Slade . 
William Beaghe 
Thomas Rogger 
John Ffychet . 
John Matthu . 
John Kynge 
John Rede 
St. Clere Pomeroy 7 
Alfred Gille . 
John Rede 
Gabriel Donne . 



Approz. 
dikte. 



1066 

1148 

1196 

1207? 

1225 

1246 

1247 

1258 

1268 

1272 

1280 

1290 

1316 
1330 
1332 
1333 
1349 
1358 
1395 
1400 
1415 
1432 
1440 
1449 
1483 
1498 

1512 
1525 
1687 



Authorities. 



Domesday Book. 

ArchivesDeanand Chapter,Exeter 

Foundation Deed, Torr Abbey. 

Grant to John Lambrith. 

Pedes Finium Henry III. 

Coll. Sir William Pole, B.M. 

Oliver. 

Ohver. 

Coll. Sir William Pole, B.M. 

Episcopal Registers, Exeter. 

Do. do. 

Agreements with Hubemford and 

others, &c. 
Episcopal Registers. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Will of Ambrose Franke. 
Episcopal Registers. 
See par. 149. 
Episcopal Registers. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 



/ 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 131 



APPENDIX (B). 

The following documents are printed (from transcripts made for me from 
the originals in the British Museum) as they stand, with the contractions 
and errors. I have thought it hest to adopt this course with all the docu- 
ments throughout this paper, the greater part of which are printed for the 
first time. 

Sloane MS. No. 513. (fo. 210b.) 

Anno Drii M™° Ic. In crastino p'"ificac6is Be Marie v''g 
copleta visi°^ in mo""s?io de B. p pre} Abbate statuta sut ea q 
secut^ f'mi? ob^vanda. In p'mis statuit^ Anno Diii Ic. Nos 
Vr R. dcus Abbas — visitantes filam nram Abbacia de B. sta- 
tuim*^ T; pcipim'J ea q sequt'' inviolabili? ob^vada In p" statud 
decVim*^ %c. Et in fine sigillu visitator appo'^f Qn aliq^ 
officiu tepale iniugi"^ If Mo"'cho alic' vt 9VS0 p Abbm suu h" 
juramentu sb se*ptu tenea"^ pstar cora Abbe suo T, seniorib) de 
coventu p costitucoes Dili Biidci pape xij~ 



;mi 



IF Juramentu. 

Ego fr R mo"'ch'1 vt 99sus Mori de B. ordis Cist juro p 
i*"^ sea Di ev"^nge"" q^ ab i*° die in antea in offo m' p vos 
Abbem meu cdmisso % 1 oib) T; sin' m^ in offo ^dco comiss 
fideli? me tiebo 1; q^ de p'ciis reddaib} f^ctib} seu pvetib} 
quib3CU3 inde pveientib) 1 expflsis quocies 1 qn p Abbe) 
meu requisit*^ fSo fidele 9potu redda pt D§ m» ded^it 1 poto 
T; reliq"^ quecii} supf Sit Mo""s?io vt bursario h*^ Mori mei 
integ'^li? assignabo s*' me D§ adjuvet 1 ista sea Di Ev^'ngelia. 

IT Juramentu novicorf. 

■ % Ego fr N. cticus juro p ista sea Di ev"'nge^ q^ ab isto die 
in antea nullu appona repugnacois obstactm uftm pc''abo 
defencois psidm qm ad jussiom Abbis mei offa si qua m* com- 
mitted^ in fufo dimitta abs3 9""dicc6ne q"^cu3 sic me D§ 
adjuvet Ic. ^ 

Quili3 novici*' in ordie Cis? petens instant? ut pfessiom sua 
faciat inf '^ annu pbois sue 1 si coced' ei sic licite pt ut ex"" 
de relig % t""nsit ad religiom e° ad aplicam Tuc pre? T; faciat 
ins'pta renuciacom in cn° cora Abbe suo T; coventu. 

Pfessio MonachorC. 

Ego tr R cticus Exorcista Accolit*' sbdiacon'' t sacdos 
pmitto stabilite mea T: cov'siom morf meorf 1 obedien'^ 
s™ regta) sci Biidci ordis Cist cora Do 1 omib) scis ej*' quore 

2 s 






132 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



reJiquie hie hnt' in hoc loco qui voca' Bucfast ord Cisf 
construct© in hone beatissime De genitricis semp ip'^ 9ffinis 
Marie m Psencia dni Wiiti Abbis. ^ ^ ^ 



BUCK FAST ABBEY. 



133 



.nil 

IF Juramentu Abbis. 

Ego fr N etcus Abbs l\^ Mon be Marie de B juro p ista 
sea Di evn'^ge'* ^ me tacta q, possessiones reddit^ 1 jura 
mobiha 1 imobilia isti'J Mon no venda n'= alienabo vJ impig- 
norabo ne) de novo infeodabo nc p am modum donabo n* 
cTtenus statutu Pape Bndci % jura ordis mei pmittut s«= me 
D§ adjuvet 1 ista sea Di Ev'^nge* p me tacta 1 9aci)? 
osculata. 

Juramentu scolaris mittendi ad studiu. 

^ Ego fr N etcus scolaris hup Mon be M« de B ordis Cist 
juro p ista sea Di evn""ge'» q^ ab isto die in antea eg* corn ordis 
mei pViIegia libtates It appbatas 9suetudies atq) statuta a'd 
clani vl pala p me i p aliu attemptar impet'^re seu 1 in a™ 
lUicite sive pt^ve C9"'iren6 psumauii pdcus ordo mens in pte 
vj in toto dampnu a^scadalu inc""rer valeat vi g^^vamen s« me 
Dg Ic. 

Juramentu scolaris pmovedi ad g'^du scolasticum. 
Ego fr N Monachus 1 scolaris Mori be M« de Bucfas? ordis 
Cist juro p ista sea Di ev*"nge» q3 cu ad baclar vl Magisf^tu 
theologice facultat^ pvehlo C9"" instituta ordis mei pVilegia 1 
libtates a'd m fut'is no atteptabo p me 1 p aliu seu alios n« 
quocu3 doloso color quesito pc'abo seu p me pc''ari paciar 
ipetrando q*^ instituta 1 libtates ordis mei aridci Nee eidm 
I^suma vi 1 pc""abo p me vl p aliu clam vf pala infinPe seu 
q«»modoli3 alias inpugr"" s'' me D§ Ic. 

Juramentu Monachi vocati ad cosiliu Abbatis. 
Ego fr N. Mo^-ch^ 1 pfessus Mori be M« de B. ordis Cist 
juro p 1** sea _Di ev^nge"" q, secretu 1 consiliu q,cu3 m» per 
vos Abbm meu vt aliu seu alios noie vro ja revelandu fideli^ 
tenebo at3 sHabo nc id ullaten*^ in posPu alic^ vt a*d pS con- 
8cia3 vra3 p me n«^ p alia seu p alios qOscu5 revelabo ne3 
denudabo n'= 1 revelar seu denudar faciam vt pcurabo sic me 
dg Ic. ^ 

Juramef Monachi m*tedi ad curia Ro^a p nego'" dom*J. 

Ego f r N. Mo'^ch^ 1 pfess^ h'^ Mon be M« de B. juro p ista 

^~* £V®C"^®" ^ ™® "^^^^^ *^^**^ % "®^«" <ini ™e» Abbis 1 
dee Mo stii mei 9missa 1 comHenda fide* in cur ro%a pseq^^r 

1 p posse meo ditnr pmovebo cG exacta diligencia ac pecunia3 



m^ delibanda in usus 1 utili*^* dcorf negociore m' comissore 
1 cornittedo^ 1 no in alios vsus frivilos expenda q^q3 uUam 
Tp ef'com in dca cur vl alibi p me vl p aliu seu alios facia vl 
ri pcu";bo q tend^e potit ad inc^mentu honorf seu status dci 
dm mei abbis vl mei a* C9li3 de coventu sive Mon me piudiciu 
vl ruina qVism" ac 1 int"" t'duG advent*' mei p^mo ad doas 
cur griali pcu^-tori ordis mei si ei*J copia her potuo me fideliV 
pntabo s*= me ds Ic. 

Juramet Mo^^ch t C9?'si dir'^ti ad cui= ro'^na p absolucoe. 

^ Ego fr J^. Mo^-ch^ "l pfessus h^ Mo"^st" de B. iuro p ista 
sea di ev""ng» q, cas^ que stimulante 9scia mea dno meo 
abbi exposui T; p q« ad endm sede aplica tiam ab eo petivi 
V est T; Vacit m» accidit ullo simulacois vl fraudis color 
pmixtojt q, p tepe quo ex"^ dcm Mon meu ex causa pdca iSo 
itinJatu^^s mansurus vl q°m*'cu3 moraturus nullu oio actu vl 
inst]^ mentu seu a'd aM qcu3 noie censeaf^ 09*^ pVilegia 
ordis mei aridci vl statuta a^ C9suetudies appbatas eiusdm'' p 
me vl p alios seu aliu pcu'^bo a* alias arte vl ingenio impetrabo 
q, in Jiudiciu a*=^ psone C9cri3 stat^ digni^^ vl condicois ^xistat 
vl^g""varnen ac T: inf*^ t»duu p^ advetu meu p'mo ad cur 
ro'^na gnJali pcu""tori ordis mei si copia ipi^ her po?o me 
fidelit presentabo s'' me ds T;c. 

Obligaco recipiendi in Noviciii. 

Ego N. de cticus Exorcista accloit^ sbdiacon^ diacon^ vl 
saedos dio instinctu motus cupiens vitam Mo**"chalein duce in 
isto Mon^ be M« de B. ordis Cist Exori dioc obligo me do 1 
be M« §p vgi di genit>ci ac 6ib3 §cis 1 pa? abba q, die m» limitato 
tonsura T; hitu novicior^ in isto dco Mon v*aci? assuma ac 
integru annu pbaconis mee vl qntS in h°a regla sci bndci fSit 
indultu fidelit pimplebo §°^ for«m ordis aildci. 

IT Peticio novicij in Capitulo. 

Diie peto instan? 1 hmt^ supplico qten^ \aleam a vobis 
recipi ad faciend pfessiom mea in isto Mon de B. ad 3viend 
do T; scis eius hie in? vos in hitu Monachali scdm reglam gci 
bndci ordis Cis? ad rminu vite mee s"^ legem di T: vra docu- 
menta. IF Tuc exponat illi abbas auricia ordis vt est modus. 

IF Benuciaco. 

Ego fra? Ric etct^ Novicius in isto Mon bte Marie de 
Bukfast ordis Cis? dio instictu motus cupiens ordinem monas- 
ticu in isto pdco Mori s"* regla^ §ci bndicti solempni? pfi?i in 






»^^— ■ 



134 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



V f 



Sbsidu novicijs rehgiosis de lure indultu novi n^metu induct^ 
83 pe sponte siph*^ 1 absolute residue dcti anni pbaconis mee 
m hijs stfpte renuco 1 peto instan? me recipi ad pfess^m 
Jdcam faciendam §» for'-m ordinis antedci. P^essiom 

Itm cu refrigescente devocone mlto^ pauce pso« nth dolor 
ad c9V8ioem veiant liijs dieb^ vn in nouUis miidi ptibj 
monasha nri ordis magnu paciut^ defeetu psona* pp? qU 
cultf dm mmuir 1 monasteria ipa in tepalib^j magna 

"""le^-^S JT°^ ? *"J^ ^^ ^^^^P*''« "«^^<^y8 cici^adiuver ca- 
ge diffiva al,as edita de novijs ante annu pbacois finitu ad 
pfessione solempne admittens ipis q3 bndicedis vsq3 ad revo- 
cacoem pdurandu progat 1 renovat sic tameq, ipi novici' 
anq m bndicat sciant psal&u 1 ea que de iiccit^te sut scieda 
'I qrtiidecimu sue etatis cople9int 1 residuo fpis anni sue 
pbacois de fco renucient ex^sse vt ps sup». Ista diffinico 
compilata fiiat anno dni Miitimo ccc Ixxiij apud Cist i c«ge«. 

212 b. Re?endo i x« pri ac dno dno E. di gra Exofi EBo sui 
ftini es 1 devoti filij Abfesl Convent^ MonasTij Bukfestr ordis 
Oist ciensis Exon dioc re^encias tento pri debitas cu honor 
Revende Wnitati vre. J. b. accolitu virum liberu 1 legit- 
boneq3 Wsacois 1 honeste vre dioc ^sentam^ hmili? sup- 
plicates 1 devote qtin9 eude. J. ad cms sacros ordles p 
sac^ru manuu vra^ iposicoem cari^P ituitu r>mo9e digeL 
Un a«^ :pmocois sive pvisois eiusd i nos 1 successores riros 
tonr suscipim vos ante successorsqj vros i hac pte idepnes 
co^var pmittim^ p pntes. In c^ rei testio^ sigillO nrj ^e e 



BUCKFAST ABBEY. 



135 



H 



APPENDIX (C). 



Sloane MSS. No. 513, fo. 213. 

In visitacone facieda p** d3 Abbas visi*^* pmunir visitand 
sc'bendo s* vt ej*^ locu teneti de te® advet'^ sui ca visi'" celebftde 
P'* g^ die visits ariq^"" intret ca™ d} pmunir Abfem t ej'^ Porem 
dom*' 1 p*' intr eccm"^ ad \\gi^ vi ad p^mam ut filii sui s* 
obediat magf devote. Intfts g ca™ post Icom regie plecta 
dicto ut mor c bndi**' sbjugat CarisSi fres T; filii later vos no 
d3 ca instant advet'^ nri q»li3n pa? Abbas p* sci?f § statuta 
ordis tene' annuati p se 1 p aliii singta Mos""i^ia s^ ime'^ 
sbjecta visitar 1 ea q iveSit corigeda zelo di T: ordis ta in 
s^ualib3 q*^ in corpalib3 emedar Ad h** g^ vei ut actu visi^" 
pficia i vobis dia g""tia dirigete 1; q3 c ta form"" i hac pte 
hem*' mutada io s'^gat cator T; legat cora vobis Deiri pte**^ 
carta visi" T; lega"^ tQc plec!f diffinib} legedis dicat visitator. 
Ecce Itmi vos audista bona inforc'^om nob a scis prib} nris 
f^dita q""br nos 1; vos heni*' pced^e i ^nti visitacoe nra T; io 
do® Abba debetf fres vros rogar pcipe % moner ut ea q 
corigeda nov'int puplice t pVati nob suggerant T; pponant S9 
form"" cora nob lectam Post%"" v® Abbas fec^it moicom sua 
Dicat visitator T: nos autori** prna q"" fugim' i hac pte vob 
6ib3 T: sin^ pcipim*' i hac pte i v^'tute see obedi® q"'tin*' veiatf ad 
nos puplice i pVati p meli'^ indicaPitf facied % ondatf ea q 
corigeda sut i raos""oo i spualib} T; tepalib3 ta i capite q"" in 
meb's ptestem"^ q3 vobis p pte nra 03 q'cq^' nobis caritatie 
suggestii fu^it T: ex bono spu pati sum^ id effica*^ emedar p* 
D§ mistv"'erit gt""ia T; ipi*' T: ordis honore aiarf vrarf salute 
paceq3 T; utilite3 oniu I cor Tiie dicat visitator volum*> p*' ca™ 
visitar officia 16 vos officiales sitf in officiis vris T; vos P^or 
pvideatf de Frib3 q^ vadat nobiscu T; p"* nova hebitf pliametu 
Insup durate visitacoe res^vam*' in man*' nras pulsacom ad 
p'ma 1 ad ca™ % phibem*' ne a^o Mo""ch*' de Monas?io se 
absentet sii licen"" nra spali % q^ opus bonu incipe d3 cu orone 
ut fine meliore heat in effcu io ut pfis act*' nre visi'^ meli*' 
pspe"" dice*' i p'n" veni cr spc pr nr ave et coltca Accones 
nras T;c. 






'"Y^^^'T^ 



{ * 

\ f 



136 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



,:f. 



«ic, bis. 



I ■' III 
' ,,» I' » 




De comissar 

n.- ■ . ^ "^5 ^^^^^ "" Venimus sv vocati sural ad mn- 
tnlnl' "* P. """f i»ffi P?i« vri dSi v5 AbWs ttis loci s, i pi„o 
voiul (J audiatf for'^m comissiois nre q"- ptca dieat eom!?.^? 

sCrStorli:'?f 'r> 9'l'3annuetibus dieat eoraiW 
s gat cator T legat for"-m visi" Ic ut s"" De relaxacoe Den« 
vt mifgano p„ie Amice nos itellexim'> ob q^m cTj ZCi 
pn.a T SIC dcra e nob rSito h» pa?is ad istancia tii AbWs tui% 
«ocore tuore remittim-) T relaxaml pelaj ista i- p de ce?o te 

sno n ,^- V'ru? ^^^ pclamacoes ,,t ma?ia inveSit in 
suo pliamcto 1 ahbi sup p'ore supp'ore cantor succetor ecile- 
rans Sbcel era? de spualib, T tepalibj \ sup articles gteTe in 
scJpto v,s.« Pore sic alloquens! Uiie F-or tu es peal" 
p eo a no fac f debitu officii tui cJea ordiej obSvad Fres no 

- t3 L'' ^^"J? "* '^^''^'■e'- Silenciu in 4 locis p'ncipalib, 
Zft~ "?" ^ •'" "'."^ '""'^ ^ '^P''" debitel'^cKad 

vi^;&^' '°- '5'^'-'"^ P"'' cSpletorfn ^ an remanl 1 de 
„f^f!^-tr ^''- ""P t'*"- nee ea psolvut in iPmitoris tepe debito 

no ob^vate devote morose ac vivaci? cantado sj nimis tepide 
festma te 1 mdeyote coplefp ?viciu dnm q- ?ceptQ ^ 

S'v.te dno , lio^ ps^ea dne P'or debe>s ex offo tno 
exctar cantore m ecctia 1 alios gftes tuos ut dnu officiD cu 
tior 1 tremor nnbi psolvant remissos sv negligetes i ca° 

d^\Z 'f -Z } •*«'■'"«';'" "° ■nodicu religio". Ilia que 
Q-n^ ?h""k91 .^"PP'"" ■>""'"'' 13 "5 faeedebitu ?uu 

de .bar volura_1 ^ vob.s p vra necligecia sit faciei eatf^essQ 
nsj n crastmu judic.Q exsp'tantes. T'cia die dTco a Ssidete 
bndi>« expo q, regta sbjugat loq^m' de ordie nro 1 petita 

n^llTl T""- ^~'f "" """ '•'•' ' '»° "» "agna peiiiaj 
njeru sti ex ord.s ngor Sj mia moti volum") ad pSs pinico, 

«.o difterr sb spe emtdacois usqj ad pxia) visi" i q- si 

Z^- T^" .™ ~''*^'*^ emedacom i te T in aliis n' vobis 
ppoim-* onder gro decePo I favor sy costet vobis de ce?o sj 



BUCKPAST ABBEY. 



137 



io^fect°f o^f sS .4s°'-^i;>^««if q- vos volum". obPvare 1 
f-J ^ li" • T '*" emedari \ eatf sessura Tuc dicat hi 
ftes 1 fih, 9s,d«ate atteci"" 1 videf« q-]i? Snte, visi^nr^ 
pfecnl I vob 61 rigor ordis peiti ??misso ppom-m ' n n n'" 
onder vob.s so" gra, % favoe movedo 1 vitan^" q "in" dZ 

S^e AbbW~„^''*1-?"l^'''f "-» «" leccoitel^ib^dett 
insistate Abbi vro 1 alus srioribj vns obedieneia % re^Pniig 

exhibeatf caritate trnitatis 1 bonfi pace ivice obfvado dlblri^ 
insup vagacojoloda evitar defcus^ vesk^atq iSa 
emcdar ut s^ graj vobis tc^ i„ ^„ti visitaeoe iveiam S 
advetunro vosin vacua nȣte1 ^oepisse Sup IstVT effica? 
obW p.o„ 1 suppriori comittim^ vices nfas u fIciS 
monicom nram ab oibj sbSvari. Niehil ad facied Tad Sus 
iEi n- cu orone ut mof e visita" nmj ftai^. R«dam5 S 
yobis \orombj vfis statu 1 unitate eccie uKpud^ J 
intiucecu? dnm sij Sumu pon? cu toto clero TImS 
adherjte ut sut cardenales AUeprEpTAbbt Po^s eelh 

5 rojomedo oroib3 vns 6s fideles vivos 1 defuctos 1 sBali? 

r^^'-fu-f*"!^ '^ *'* P^*^ "^'f """trO frata "ororf oniuo, 
pentu 1 bnfactorf n-'no 1 omii fideliu defucforf d di S: 

pa^ req'escat Vos ex pte Pore q' estf sacerfolUbrXis 
1' 3 vrm celebrabit una missa p defuctf 1 q'li, vto q^ estU 

do^nft^!" ""^"■■r^ t! ^? ^8^"e Mark I^cSaM 
do Ki mttu ree cian? vobis de mora nfa 1 ilia pace a"m d! 
rel,qu,t su,s di«,iptis t"-„siens ex h" mudo JTre? v"bt 
iJoptam^ 1 pax di q exsupat oe, ss- exultet i co,il7b- v? s 

iSf Tt ;™?'"°"'^l «»*«''« ""e-norate Et ad'^dffi sitf filii 1 
«rea't^n\rre??rS '''' ^''''- '^ '^^''^^ ^ 
M de^!""''"' ^"""^ Monachus 1 scolaris de Bukfast-R. D. 



t 



- il -I ■ <Hi ^« i"» w ii ;ii !i n wi m 1 '"T " ! i " i """ "' " * * W" " ^i " *; , ' f I 'i ;" " ' " "^ if "^ ■'— ■ n ' w" j» wpi» « m n i'iwi>iiifipi M ' wy^'^wy 



■ 'IP ■i»iw— pMppwjm 



; 



i 






THE 
CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

IV. 
NEWENHAM. 






THE 



i'-i 1 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Newenham. 



199. This Abbey was situated in the parish of Axminster, 
at a short distance from the town. Founded by William de 
Mohun in 1245, the site of the Abbey was blessed, and the 
cemetery consecrated in the course of the following year. 

200. It is not my intention to write the history of this 
house. This has been already done by the late Mr. James 
Davidson, in a manner which leaves little further to be said, 
and to his Memoir I would refer my readers.* I intend only to 
print some unpublished documents relating to the Abbey and 
to certain proceedings of its inmates hitherto unknown. 

201. The second Abbot was Henry de Persolte, and in 
the first year of his abbacy a purchase of part of Shapwick 
was made of Henry de Burton and Mabilla his wife for a 
inoney consideration, the convent yielding in addition an- 
nually, on the Feast of the Nativity of St. John Baptist, a 
pair of white gloves. I give the original of the agreement 
entered into at Exeter on the Morrow of the Ascension, 1249. 
The payment appears to have been thirty marks, not thirty- 
five, as mentioned by Davidson, p. 158. 

Hec est finat concordia fca In Cur dni Regf apud Exoii Li 
C"^stino Ascensionis Dfii Anno regni B^gf Henr fit RegC Joh 
Tricesimo ?cio Cora Rogo de Thurkelby Gilbto de Preston 
Magro Sim de Wautoii % Johe de Cobbeh Justic Itiflan? T; 
aliis dni Regf fidet tuc ibi psentib) Int Henr Abbem de 
Newenh quer \ Henr de Burtoii % Mabit vx ei^ imped de vna 
Caruc rre T; dimid cu ptin in Shepwykf . Unde plac War 
carte suin fuit in? eos in ead Cur Scilt qd pdci Henr % Mabit 
rec pdcam tra cu ptiii esse ius ipius Abbis T: Ecctie sue de 
Neweham vt ilia q m Id Abbs T; eccta sua pdca hnt de dono 

* The History of Newenham Abbey, in the County of Devon, by James 
Davidson. London and Exeter. 1843. 

U 



4 

i 



■m 



. 1 — ■iiii i i. <n »ii m i ia ii nn i n ii n ni n 4tiini > iiii 



'•"IIJIiStMl'**"! 



i'. ' 



^.Mmm 



mtimm 



140 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



141 



^dcorx Henr T; Mabit. Habenf 1 tenendf eid Abbi It succ 
suis T; ecctie sue Jdce de pdcis Henr T: Mabit 1 hed ipius Mabii 
impp Reddendo inde panii vnu par albarx Cyrothecar^ ad 
Natitate sci Joh Bapte p omi 3uico T; exaccone. Et ^dci 
Henr "X Mabit T; hed ipius Mabit War Jdco Abbi \ succ suis 
T; ecetie sue pdce pdcam tram cu ptin p pdcm 3uic cont"^ 
omes boies impp. Et p he rec war fine T; concordia Idem 
Abbs dedit pdcis Henr 1 Mabit Triginta M^'rcas argnti. 

Feet of Fines, Devon. Henry III. No. 446. 

202. The next is the abridgment of John Prince (the 
author of " The Worthies of Devon," who was born in the 
house at Newenham Abbey,) of the account of the ceremonies 
attending the laying the foundation stone of the church. 
Prince heads his abstracts, — 

\Cartm sequentes ob nimia prolixitate abreviunter p J. P.] 

A" gratie 1254 Idus Septem. positus est primus Lapis 
super Fundamentu Ecte B^® Marie de N3rweham a ven®^ viro 
Dno Reginaldo de Moun Fundatore ejusd abbathie ; qui etia 
tres Petras posuit, cruc© signatas ; et quartam petram posuit 
Diius Wiilmus de Moun frater dicti Reginaldi ; Quinta petra 
posuit Dnus Wymondus de Ralegh miles; et in secundo 
Anno postea Dnus de Smaleridge. Posite sunt he quinque 
petre in honore s** Trinitaf et b*® Marie Virginis et oium 
Sanctoru, p«sen? tunc Dno Henrico tunc Abbate et omni 
Conventu.— (Add. MSS. 28,649, p. 370.) 

203. The date given in the following copy of the deed of 
Reginald de Mohun, directing that his body should be buried 
before the high altar in the Abbey Church of Newenham, is 
different from that in the copy referred to by Davidson, and 
it appears to vary in other particulars. — See Davidson, p. 35. 

Oibus 8*® Matris Ecte filijs &c. Regiii de Moun Miles Dnus 
de Dunsterre Salut in Dno Sempiter. Affectione qua nos 
Nov®*" versus Monasteriu de Nyweham Exoii DioceS quia 
nostra existit fundat Abtem et Monaohos Ord. Cis?. ibide 
Deo et Gloriose virg Marie famulantibus ex devotione gerimus 

psentibus, declaramus, volentes Corpus nostril, cu ab eod 

Anima fuerit separata, in Ecta de Nyweha ante majus altare 
honorifice sepeliend legamus, et insuper expresse concedentes 
qd ubicu% et quocunq^ decesserim preterqua in Terra sancta 
p Heredes [vel] Alios Amicos Execu! nostros Corpus firum 
apud Nyweham Sepeliend deferatur. ahoqui liceat memorato 
Abti et Monachis qui p tempore in dioto Monasterio existunt 



corpus iirum p se vel p certos nuntios ad hoc specialiter 
Deputatos requirere et apud Nyweha deferre, vt p aliquos 
Amicoru nrorum alibi (qd absit) humatu esset. In cujus rei 
testimoii Sigillu meum apposuimus. Hijs Test Dno Witlo de 
Moun, Wimondo de Ralegh, Gervasio de Horton tunc vicecom 
Devoii, Johe Arondell, Warino de Ralegh Militibus ; Wiito 
de Bray, Reginaldo de Bath, Gilb. de Castello, Rado de 
Monte Sorell, Rico de Membyry, Ada Hunt et alijs. Da? 
apud Dunstor iiij Kal. Jul. A*' D. 1255.— Ibid. p. 423. 

204. The record of the death of the founder follows: — 

A°. D. 1257. 13 Kal. Feb. die Dominica in festo §toru 
Fabiani et Sebastiani Reginaldus de Moun Dnus de Dun- 
storre et Fundator Abbathie de Nyweham via universe Carnis 
ingressus est apud Torr in Com Devoii. — Ibid. p. 371. 

205. The kindness of Mr. J, M. Davidson, the son of tlie 
historian of Newenham, enables me to print a complete copy 
of the monkish rhymes in praise of Bishop Bronescombe 
with the original Latin extended. 

Plus de viro referam 
Qualiter et Nyweham 
Fovet et decorat 

Prout vobis dicere 

Possum necnon pandere 
Plurimum honorat. 

Ibi multum laboravit 

Et thesauros erogavit 

Eorum laboribus 

Quod nunc patet et patebit 
Gaudet homo que gaudebit 

Futuris temporibus. 

Primo sex altaria 
Per sua donaria 
Ibidem levavit 

Quae de Dei giatia 

Manu sua propria 
Post et dedicavit. 

Ex his autem senis aris 
Pars habet aquilonarie 
Ternas in basilica. 

Quorum sancto Gabrieli 

Cunctis angelisque cseli 
Dedicatur unica. 
u2 



.'11 

■11 ! 



I| 
^11 



% 




■•■ 



142 



TBS CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

Thomae magistri secunda 

Cujus luxit vita munda 

Cunctisque martyribus 

Qui vi crucis triumphalis 
Caput hortis infernalis 

Trivanmt sub pedibus. 

Sanctae quoque Katerinae 
Et virginibusque sine 
Virili concubitu 

Ara tertia sancitur 

Dlis eis et largitur 
Laus devoto spiritu. 

Aliae quidem tres arse 

Latae nunc ad angulare 

Locis stant dividuis 

Quarum prima dedicatur 
Johanni qui plus amatur 

In Dei discipulis. 

Lucap, sanctoque Matthaeo, 

Et ei quern signat leo, 

Cunctis et apostolis, 

Quos gens Christianae legis 
Jussis poena summi Regis 

Habet pro didasculis. 

Annae secundaque piae, 

Matri scilicet Mariae, 

Sanctisque conjugibus 

Qui per nuptialem vitam 
Aulam coeli concupitam 

Habent pro laboribus. 

In honore Nicholai 

Preca leni qui vult trahi 

Ad opem merentium 

Omniumque confessorum 
Qui fragrarunt in amorem 

Stat altare tertium. 

Multa post haec fecit ibi, 
O tu lector, quae non tibi 
Modo recitantur ; 

Dicant hi de Nyweham 

Qui per Dei gratiam 
Inde jam laetantur. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 143 

Igitur vos Sancti Dei 
Subvenite, precor, ei 
Implorantes veniam 

Qui nos tantus sit honore 

Et pro Christo sic labcre 
In domo de Nyweham. 

Hinc vos qui de Nyweham 
Estis ut memoriam 
Praesulis habendo 

Deprecor ne taceat 

Vox laudis sed valeat 
Gratias agendo. 

Orantes cum credulis 
Pro salute praesulis 
Vos qui via honorat 

Germiuat ut lilium 

Ante Dei filium 
Pro quo sic laborat. 

Pro Waltero confessore 
Mentis visu cordis ore 
Rogatis, carissimi. 

Ut in die mortis dirae 

Hunc dignetur custodire 
Filius altissimi. Amen. 

206. The following is the agreement with William de 
Staunton, permitting the monks to take stone from his quarry 
of Staunton, which was situated, it is stated, between the 
quarry of the monks of Ford and the grantor's arable land. 

Oibus x^ fid ^seh Scrip? visur vel Auditur Witts fit Willi de 
Stauton mit salut. Nov^*^" me dedisse et concesS Deo et b^^ 
Marie et fabrice Ecte in honore eorund apud Nyweham incepte 
et Monachis ejusd Loci una Acram de Quarrarea mea de Staun- 
ton jacente inter Quarraria Monachoru de Forda et tram 
mea arabilem, et se extenden! ab oriente Longitudine 16 
pticaru, et in Latitud versus Austru 8 pticaru et adeo pro- 
funde sicut melius videretur expedire. Concessi etia p me 
dictis Monachis et ministris qd hab Liberu et idoneG ingress 
et egress p terram meam cu Carro et Carreta ad petru Ca- 
riand &c. Pro hac aute donatione et concessione dedere mihi 
Abbas et Conven? de Nyweham septe marcas sterling prema- 
nibus &c In cujus rei testiih p^senti Scripto sigillu meu 
apposui. Testibus Dfio Henr de Aulton, Diio Andrea Rec- 



1 



r 



1 1 



*44t 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



145 



tore Ecte de Staunton RotSto de Staunton he ejus Ro^o de 
La Breche, Dno Hug tunc Priore de Newham et alijs. Dat 
mense Apr A°. D'. 1279.— (Add. MSS. 28,649, p. 370.) 

207. The next document is of some interest. It is the 
record of a dispute between the Abbot of St MichaePs 
Mount, — not the Comish, but the French Abbey, that of 
St. Michael " inpericulo Maris,^^ — and the Abbot of Newen- 
ham, as to rendering " secta " in respect of land in the manor 
of Yarcombe in the hundred of Axminster. The verdict of 
the jury was in favour of the French abbot. William de 
Saham, one of the justices itinerant, was a judge of the Court 
of King's Bench. William de Giselham, whose name often 
appears in the legal records, was the King's advocate, the 
names of Attorney and Solicitor-General not having been 
adopted until the reign of Edward IV. In 1229 Giselham 
was appointed one of the Judges of the Common Pleas.* 

Ptita de Juratis % Assisis Coram Salam de Roffi 1 Sociis 
suis Justiciar Itifiantib} Apud Exoii In Com Devon In 
Octab Sci Martini Anno Regni Reg Edwardi fit Reg Henr 
Nono Incipiente Decimo. Boylund. 

jf Abbas sci Michis in picto mar sum fuit ad respond Abbi 
de Neweham de ptito qd fac sectam ad hundrm suum de Ax- 
menystre q*m ad illud fa2e debet T:c Et undo dicit qd quidam 
Galfrs pdec suus fuit ses de pdca secta p man^ cuj^dam 
Thurstani Abbis de Monte sci Michis in picto mar pdec pdci 
Abbis de MaSio de Yartekumbe ut de tribus sepl in tres sepf 
ut de feodo T; Jure tpe pacis tpe Dni H Reg pats Diii Reg 
nuc capiendo inde explec ad valenc Ic Et qd tale sit Jus T;c 
ofl^t Et Abbas p Atorii suu ven Et defend Jus suu T; seisi'^m 

fdci Galfri ^ec Ic Et totu Ic. Et poii se in magnam assi^m 
)ni Re&^ Et pel rec fieri uf" ipe maj^ Jus ht tenendi 
pdcm manSiu suu de Yartekumbe absq^ hoc qd aliq^m s'^tam ei 
faciat p eodm ad hundredu pdci Abbis de Axemenystre sic 
tenet An idm Abbas de Neweham hndi pdcam sectam de 
tTbus sep& in tres seplis Ic. Et ofi^t Dno Regi dimid marc 
p hnda mcoe de Ipe Et Recipif Ic. Et Witts de Radlegh. 
Rads de Done. Rics Coifyn \ Rics de Hydon q^tuor milites 
ven 1: eligut istos scitt Ricm de Hydon. Wiltm de Radlegtl. 
Radm de Done Ricm CoflFvTi Hugone de Radlegti Wiltm 
de Albemarle. Henr de Radlegh ^Johem de VSlle Torta 
de Clist Witm Punchardon. Radm fit Rici Warinum de 
sicca vill Jotiem Punchardon Michem Trenchard Rogum 

• Fobs, Judges of England, p. 301. 



fit Pagani Johm de Umfhnivyt T: Wiltm le Prouz, qui dnt 
sup sacrm suu qd pdSus Abbas de Monte sci Michis in picto 
mar maj^ Jus lit tenendi pdcm maSiu de Yattecombe absq^ 
pdca secta faciend ad hundrm pdci Abbis de Axemynstre 
de tribus septis in tres septifh sic tenet q* pdcs Abbas de 
Neweh'^m hndi pdcam sectam ad hundrm suu pdcm de ?bus 
sept in tres sept Et I^o conB est qd Abbas de Monte sci 
Michis in picto mar 1 succ sui teneat pdcm Mafiiu de Yatte- 
combe absqj pdca secta faciend ad hundrm pdcm q'ete de 
p'dco Abbe de Neweham T; succ suis inppet Et Abbas de 
Neweh*m in mia Et Witts de Gyselh*m appoii clafh p diio 
Rege. 



Assize Roll Devon 



L 



1 Memb : 13-d. 



208. In 1301-2 at the Comish Assize at Launceston the 
Abbot was called upon to show by what authority he claimed 
to hold the hundred and bailiwick of Stratton. This is re- 
ferred to by Davidson, and I give the original entry from the 
Assize Roll. 

Placita de Jar 1 assiB • • apud Lanceneton In Com Cor- 
nub In Octab sci Michis Anno regni Regis Edwardi filij 
Regis Henr Tricesimo. 

jf Abbas de Niwenham sum ftiit ad respond dno Regi quo 
waranto clamat hre hundredum 1 ballivam de feodo sine aliquo 
dando de hundredo de Stratton. Et Abbs per attorn suu 
ven Et dicit qd ipe '\ eius pdecessores sui a tempore quo no 
exstat memoria lial»uerunt pdcam ballivam % ea vsi fuerut 
hucusque absq^ aliqua interrupcoe. Et de hoc ponit se super 
patriam. Et Job de Mutf * simitr In hundro nichil clamat. 
Ideo rem Regi. Jur quo ad ballivam pdcam dicunt sup 
sacrm suu qd pdcus Abbas T; omes predec sui a tempo fun- 
dacois Abbathie sue pdce 1 ofnes alij qui MaSium de Korton 
tenuerunt ante fiindacoem pdcam huerunt ballivam pdcam 
Ic Ideo pdcus Abbas inde sine die salvo T;c. 



H 

Assize Roll. 1^ 

21 



l.m. 37. 



209. The next, from the De Banco Roll, date 1317, refers 

♦ Joh'nes de Mut/ordy in other Pleas — qui sequiturpro Rege. 



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-^ 



f ' 



J* 
V * 

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I • 

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146 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DETON. 



to a claim by the Abbey against William Gel, chaplain, for 
the payment of £20 due from him. 

Ptita apud Westm coram Witts de Beresford 1 sociis suis 
Justic Dni Reg de Banco Termino Pasch anno regni Regis 
E. filii Regis E. decimo. 

De tribus septim Pasch. 

(f Esson Al5fctis de Nywynh*m op. se iiij. die versus Witto 
Gel Capellanii de ptito qd reddat ei viginti libr quas ei debet 
T; injuste detinet Ic Et ipe no ven Et pceptu fuit vie qd sum 
eu Ic Et vie nich inde fecit set mand qd nicli het Ic Et 
testatu est hie qd satis het in code Com tuo Ic T o sicut f^us 
pceptu est vie qd sufn eu 5d sit hie a die Sci Michis in xv 
dies Ic. De Banco Roll, Easter, 10 Edw. II. 

210. The next, 20 Edw. II. from the Pole Collections, 
refers to the gift of the Tyntens, of lands in Shapwick to the 
Abbey. See Davidson, p. 71. 

Oibus X^ fidel. &c. Frater Johes de Tynten Abbas de 
Neweham et ejus Loci convent ex una pte et Alicia de 
Tynten Dna de Colury(?) et Johes Tynten mit fil. ejus ex 
all pte de terris in Shapwick in Man de Axmister D. Da!. 
A. R. R. E. fil. R. E. 20, p. 56. Add. MSS. (B. M.) p. 381. 

211. I give the next to preserve the names of the parties 
and of the witnesses. It is from the same source as the last. 
The Abbot is Walter de la Houe, the sixteenth abbot. 

Sciant &c. qd Ego Henricus de la Ford persona Eccles. de 
Meriet* dedi &c. Johi de Carru mil. omnes ter meas auas habui 
in La Moore in pochia de Loueputt. In cujus test. &c. Sigillu 
meu apposui Test. I>** Wall Abbe de Newham Johe Francois 
Witto iJphey Johe de Greneway Dat apud Nyweham 27 
E. 3.— Ibid. p. 381. 

212. The next entry, from the De Banco Roll, relates to 
proceedings taken against Thomas Morton, a defaulting col- 
lector of the Abbey, who did not appear, and against whom 
judgment was given. 

Wal?us atte Hone Abbas de Nyweh""m p Wiltm de EUe- 
worth at? suu op. se iiij. die 9su8 Thom de Mortoii de ptito 
qd reddat ei ronabilem compotu suu de tempo quo ftdt recep- 
tor denar ipius Abbis l Johis de Gaytyngton nup Abbis de 
Nyweham Jdecessoris Jdci Abbis 1c Et ipe no veii Et peec 

• Probably Merriott, co. Somerset. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



147 



fiiit Vic q distr eulc Et vie modo ijanf q^^^f ^f^l}„^ 
preeestvie qd cap eu le Et f ^^P.^l^^ Hd^\^5\^.^^,^,^ 
eius hie in Octab see Trinitat p Justic Ic^ Et vn \e Ad que 
die vie no misit bre losic p^us prec est yic qd cap eu siT-c M 

saluolc Itaqd heat corpus ems ^^«, ^^^'^^t '" ^l^^l 8 I 
Justic lc.-De Banco Roll, Easter, 17 Edw. IIL memb. 18 d. 

213. A Mayor of Exeter is mentioned in the following 
entry relating to another debtor. 

Preceptii fuit vie qd corpus Henr de W .^%^^^^f^^^ 
si laicus esse? capet et in p^sona Regf saluo custodm fae donee 
Abbi de Nvweh^m de q^ndecim libr plene satisfac quas j^deus 
Henr p'mo'die ffebruar\nno regni dni Rege m.c Angt q^nto- 
decimo cora Henr de Hughetoii nup maiore ^mitat Exon ^ 
Robto de Lucy tuc ctico ad recogn debitor^ apud Exon acci- 
dend deputat recogn se debere f/deo Abbi et quas^ei soluisse 
Sebuit acf fm sci Michis Archangeli tuc px ^equen et eas ei 
nodule Etquali? le scire fae hie ad hue die ^ciK a die Pasche 
in XV dies 4 Et vie modo mand qd cepit 5«^Py« P.^^,^^^^^^ 
illud saluo 1 secur ousted fae sedm t^^^or^^?^^!.^^^^^^^^^ 
Abbas heat inde bre p statut Ic Et quali? ^c vie scire fae hic 
in Octeb sci Michis Ic Et vn Ic.-Ibid. memb. 49. 

214. Walter Bourdenile had neglected to furnish a proper 
account, and proceedings were taken agamst him. 

Waltus Abbas de Nyweham p Wittm de Elleworth at? suu 
op. se iiij. die 9sus Wal?m Bourdeny e de ptito qd redd e 

ronabile compotu suu de tempo quo fuit ^^^Pf Jf^b^^^^^^^ 
nup Abbis de Nyweham pdecessoris ipius Walti nuc Abbi^s de 
Nvweh^mlc Et ipe no ven Etprec fuit vie qd cap eu tc Et 
vie mod^mand qd no est inuentf le Po sic p^us prec est vie 
qd cap eu si Ic Et saluo Ic Tta qd heat corpus ems hic a die 
^£e^niLis in xv dies p Justic le Et vie sit le.-Ibid. memb. 
161 d. 

215. Thomas Morton turns up again the foUo^^^S J^.^^ 
[see 212], and Robert Cayphas wa^ called upon to ans^ver tor 
the like neglects as Morton. 

Wal?us atte Hone Abbas^de Nyweham p Wiltm de Elle- 
woKh aH suu op. se iiij die 9sus Thorn de Morton de ptrto qd 
redd 01 ronabilem compotu suu de tempo quo f^it receptor 
denar ipius Abbis ^\Johis de Gayt;^ngton nup Abbis de 
Nyweham Pdecessor^ ?dei Abbis ^e. lit ipe no yen ?c fuit ^nc 
Jd^Iap eum^ si le. Et vie modo mand qd no est inuent^ ^e t o 



" - ! V • 



i\ 



148 



l> 1 



I ' 



» 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



sicut prius Jc est vie qd cap eu si Ic. Et saluo Ic Ita qd heat 
corpus eius hie in Octafe §ci Michis Ic.— Ibid. Easter, 18 
Edw. III. memb. 46. 

Walrus Abbas de Nyweham p Wiltm de EUeworth atf suu 
op. se iiij. die Vsus_Rob!m Cayphas de piito qd reddat ei 
• roriabile compotO suu de tempe quo fiiit receptor denar ipius 
Abfeis Ic Et ipe no ven Et prec fuit vie qd capet eu Ic Et vie 
modo mand qd no est inuentuslc Fo sic p'us prec est vie qd 
cap eu si Ic Et saluo Ic Ita qd lieat corpus eius hie a die sci 
Michis in XV dies Ic Et vie sic Ic.- Ibid. memb. 134. 

216. William Abraliam, in 1343, was charged with stealing 
hay and rushes, and committing other depredations, and did 
not appear to defend himself. 

Abbas de I^weham p Wiltm de EUeworth atf suu op. se 
iiij. die Vsus Wiltm Abraham de ptito q"^e vi 1 armis clauS 
ipius Abbis apud Axemynstre fregit 1 fenu 1 ruscos ad valenc 
quadrag lib? ibidem inuenta cepit 1 asptauit 1 alia enormia ei 
mtulit ad g«ue dampnu ipius Abbis 1 cont« pace le Et ipe no 
ven Et sic prius prec Mi vie qd cap eu Ic Et vie modo mand 
qd no est inuent^ Ic To sic plur prec est vie qd cap eu si Ic 
Et saluo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie in Octabis sci Michis 
Ic Et vie sic Ic— Ibid. memb. 46 d. 

217. The next is a complaint against the Convent. John 
at bloo asserts that the Abbot and John Sangere had deprived 
him of forty sheep, of the value of one hundred shillings. 

Ad hue de Octali sci Hillar. 

IT Johes atte Sloo op se iiijt° die 9sus Waltm Abb?m de 
-Nyweham % Johem Sangere de ptito quare vi 1 armis qua- 
draginta oves ipius Johis atte Sloo precij Centu solidors apud 
Kouerigge mventas ceperunt 1 abduxerunt 1 alia enormia ei 
mtulerut ad grave dampnu ipius Johis atte Sloo 1 cent* pacem 
Regie Et ipi non ven Et prec fuit vie qd distr eoslc Et vie 
modo mand qd fydcus Abbas distr p ca? ad valenc duoderi 
denar Et m p Johem Scot et Henr Dare Fo ipi in inia Et 
sicut prius prec est vie qd distr eu p omes ?ras Ic Et qd de 
exitle Et qd heat corpus eius hie a die Pasche in xv dies p 
Justie'te Et de f^dco Jolie Sangere mand vie qd nichil iiet Ic 
1 o prec est vie qd capiat eO si Ic Et salvo Ic Ita qd heat 
corpus ems hie ad Sfatu ^min Ic Et vn Ic.— De Banco Roll, 
Hilary, 26 Edw. III. m. 21. ' 



■" ■* i ii i * i . ■!< 41{ ii »'»i i» - # 1 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



149 



218. In the next the grievance is somewhat similar, but 
the Abbot is plaintiff, not defendant. 

(f Abbas de Nyweham p Johem de Cruk at! suu op. se iiij*° 
die vsus Rogm de Cabus de Lym de ptito quare vi 1 armis 
ducentos multones ipius Abbtis precij viginti libra apud 
Swapwyk inventos cepit 1 abduxit T: alia enormia ei intulit ad 
grave dampnu ipius Abbtis 1 cent* pacem Beg Ic Et ipe non 
ven Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet el si Ic Et salvo Ic 
Ita qd heret corpus eius hie ad hunc diem scitt m octabis sci 
hillar Ic El vie modo mand qd non est inventus Ic nee aliquid 
het Ic Po prec est vie qd exigi fac eu de Com in Com 
quousa scdm legem 1 cons Ic vtlaget* si non compuJit Et si 
Ic tuc eii cap T: salvo Ic Ita qd heat corpus ems hic m Octabis 
sci Michis Ic Et vnde Ic.— Ibid. m. 41. 

219. Here William Gilemyn is a defaulter in his accounts, 
and does not appear to justify himself. 

ir Johes Abbas de Nyweham p Johem de Chudd att suu 
op. se iiij. die versus Wittm Gilemyn de ptito qd reddat ei 
ronabile compotu suu de tempe quo fuit receptor denar 
Robti de Pebbesbury quoda Abbatis de Niweham f^decessoris 
p^dci Johis Abbtis Ic Et ipse no venit et fuit attach p Wiitm 
de Trenant 1 Ricm de Trenant lo ipi in mia Et {^cep? est 
vie qd distr eum p oihes terr Ic Et qd de exitt "ic Et qd 
heat corpus eius hic In Octabis sci hillar Ic— Ibid. m. 33. 

220. William de Stamford, the executor of the will of 
Simon of Farham, sues the Abbot on behalf of himself and 
his co-executors for £12 stated to be due from the former to 
the estate. 

(T Wilts de Staunford exec testi Simonis de ffarnam p 
Thoin P*t at? suu op. se iiij^" die Vsus Abhem de Nywenham 
de ptito qd reddat ei ^ Johi Descures Rado de Bereford 1 
Wilto Dunmuire coexec pdci Wiiti de Staunford duodecim 
libr quas ei iniuste detinet Ic Et ipe non ven Et huit diem 
nuc hic posstq^'m compuit in Cur hic 1 cepit mde diem f^ce 
pciu Ic lo prec est vie qd distr eum p oes tr le Et qd 
heat corp^ ei^ hic in octabis Pur be Marie 'Ic. Et quia 
Sdci Johes Radus % Witts Dunmuire ad pxm diem compuerut 
hic 1 modo non secuntur 'Ic lo p^dcus Witts de Staunford 
sequat* sine Ic — Ibid. m. 337. 

221. The next refers to another defaulting collector of some 
of the revenues of the Abbey. 

x2 



150 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



151 



JT Abbas de Neuwenham p Johem de Chuddelegfe atf suu 
op. se iiij*° die vsus Wal'i^um de Burdevill de piito qd redd ei 
ronabilem compotu suu de tempe quo fuit receptor denariora 
ipius Abfetis Ic Et ipe non vefi Et sicut plur distr p cat ad 
valenc duor^ solidojj Et Man p Walfm de Bodget 1 Johem 
de Kerle l6 ipi in mia Et sicut plur pceptu est sic qd distr p 
oines ?r T;c Et qd de exit Ic Et qd heat corpus eius hie a 
die Pasche in xv dies Ic Et vic° sit Ic— Idem. m. 263 d. 

222. In 1366-7 Richard Branescombe, the Abbot, com- 
menced proceedings against several persons for entering his 
land at Newenham and cutting down and carrying away trees 
of the value of £20, and against William Constance for 
cutting down growing trees at Clocombe [ Valor Clokham] 
and digging stone at Foxhole. 

jf Abbas de Nywenham p Johem Prestecote ail suu op. se 
iiij^** die vsus Rohm Strange Johem ffowel Johem Alhot 
Waltm West Witlm Bertelot WiHm Conyng senior Marg'iam 
Hayward Marg'iam Belle Johem Soutli Rogm Diegher Wittm 
Hembury Juri Wittm Hembury senior Johem Dulymere 
Wittm Purs ad Pratenesse Johem Toterigge T; Waltm 
Toterigge de ptito quare ipi simul cii Witto Constance vi T; 
armis clausu ipius Abhis apud Nywenham Park frefunt 1 
arbores suas ad valenc viginti libra^ ibidem nup crescen? 
succiderunt 1 asportaverunt 1 alia enormia ei intulerunt ad 
g*ve dampnu ipius Abbis 1; contra pacem Reg Ic Et ipi non 
vefi Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet eos si Ic Et salvo Ic 
Ita qd heret eoija eoy hie ad hunc diem scitt a die sci hillar 
in XV dies Ic Et vie modo mand qd non sunt invent Tc Id 
prec est vie qd eos de Com in Com quosq^ Ic omes ^ter pdce 
Marfia 1 Marg'ia vtlagent"* 1 Jdce Marfia It Margia wai- 
vient"8 si non Ic Et si Ic tunc eos capiat Et salvg Ic Ita 
qd heat corpa eoi hie a die sci Michis in xv dies Et vfi Ic — 
Ibid. 41 Edw. III. Hilary, m. 198. 

jf Abbas de Newenham p Johem Prestecote att suu op. se 
iiij*° die Vsus Wittm Constance de ptito quare vi 1 armis 
clausu ipius Abbis apud Clocombe freg 1; arbores suas ibidem 
nup crescentes succidit 1 in quarrera sua apud ffoxhull fodit 
1 petras inde prectas ac arbores |)dcas ad Valencia decem 
librax cepit 1 asportavit 1 alia enormia Ic Et ipe non veil 
Et pc fuit vie qd distr eu T;c Et vie modo mand qd nichil het 
T;c Id pc est vie qd capiat eu si T;c Et salvo Ic Ita qd heat 
corpus eius hie a die Pasche in vnu Mensem p Justic Ic. — 
Ibid. m. 232 d. 



223. In 1394, the Abbot, John Leggas, sued William, the 
Vicar of Axminster, for intruding upon his free warren at 
Axminster without licence, and taking fish, hares, rabbits, 
pheasants, and partridges. 

Jf Abbas de Newenham p at! suu op. se iiij*** die v'sus 
Wittm vicar ecctie de Axmynstre Wittm fit Johis Toker de 
Cleyhill % Johem Blakeford de ptito quare vi T; armis lifeam 
warenna ipius Abbis apud Axmynstre intraver T; in ea sine 
Ucencia 1 voluntate sua fugaver T; in sepali piscaria sua ibid 
piscati fuer T; pisce inde ad Valencia viginti libra^ ac lepores 
cuniclos phasianos Ipdrices de warenna pdca cepunt '^ aspor- 
taver % alia enormia T:c 1 cont^ pacem R^gis T:c Et ipi non 
ven Et prec fuit vie qd attach eos Et vie modo mand qd 
nichil {lent l6 prec est vie qd capiat eos si Ic Ita qd heat 
corpora eoi hie a die Pasche in xv dies Ic ad quem diem vie 
non mi§ b^ I6 sicut prius capiant** qd sint hie in Octab sci 
Michis.— De Banco Roll 18 Ric. II. Hilary m. 46d. 

224. The following are records of similar proceedings to 
those already mentioned : — 

jf Abbas de Newenham p Johem Dennyng att suu op. es 
iiij*° die vsus Rog'um Carter cticum de ptito quare vi 1 armis 
clausu ipius Abbis apud Newenham fregit et arbores suas 
ibm nup crescentes ad valenc decem libraj succidit % aspor- 
tavit T; blada % herbam sua ibidem nup crescencia ad valenc 
Centu solidos cu quibusda av'ijs depastus fuit conculcavit T; 
consumpsitT; alia enormia Ic ad grave dampnu Ic et cent* 
pacem Regis Htc Et ipe non ven Et prec fuit vie qd capet eu 
Et vie modo mand qd non est inventus T;c Id sicut prius prec 
est vie qd capiat eu silc Et salvo T^c Ita qd heat corpus eius 
hie a die Pasche in tres septimanas Ic.— Ibid. M. 202d. 

jf Witts Lange de Axmynstre p Thomam Brokhampton at? 
sua op. se iiij**' die v*sus Abbm de Newenham de ptito qd 
reddal ei decem libras Et vsus Johem Ryde de Colyford de 
ptito qd reddat ei centum solidos quos ei debent % iniuste 
detinentTic Et ipi non veil EtsumT^c Judm attach qd sint 
hie a die Pasche in tres septimanas Ic, — Ibid. m. 217d. 

225, The next appears to be a record of the firesh proceed- 
ings in the protracted litigation between Thomas Carew, on 
the death of Robert Grymeston in 1401, and the Convent, with 
respect to the right of presentation to the Church of Luppit. 
See Davidson, p. 75 et seg. 



152 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



153 



Jf Thomas Carreu Chivaler p attorn suu op se iiij*" die 
V8US Johem Abbem de Nyweham 1 Vincencium atte Hille 
Capeitm deptito qd pmittant ipm presentare idoneam psonam 
ad ecctiam de Lovepitte que vacat T: ad suam spectat dona- 
^em T;c Et ipi non vefi Et huerunt inde diem p essori suos 
hie vsqj ad hunc diem Ic I6 prec est vie qd distr eos p ofhes 
?ras Ic Et quod heat cor pa eoa hie in Octab sci Michis Ic. — 
De Banco Roll 1 Henry IV. Trinity, m. 7 Id. 

226. The following year we have some further entries. In 
the second Thomas Carew is still pursuing his action against 
the Convent. His proceedings were ultimately unsuccessful. 

jf Jacobus Chuddelegh Miles p attorn suii op. se iiij^° die 
vsus Ricm Abbem de Dunkeswell % Johem Abbem de Ny- 
wenham de piito qd vt'a eo^ reddat ei viginti libras quas ei 
debet 1 iniuste detinet Ic Et ipe non vefi Et prec fuit vie 
qd Attach eos Ic Et vie modo mand quod v^q^ eox Attach 
est p Johem Holme 1 Thomam fforster Id ipi in mia Ic 
Et prec est vie qd distr eos p omnes ?ras Ic Et qd de exif 
Ic Et qd heat corpa eos hie A de sci Michis in xv dies Ic — 
De Banco Roll, 2 Henry IV. Trinity, m. 176d. 

jf Jur* int Thomam Carreu Chivaler quer T; Johem Abbem 
de Nyweham de ptito quare impedit ponit"" in respcm hie 
visq^a die sci Michis in xv dies Nisi Justic dni Regis ad 
assias in Com pdco capiend assign p formam statuti Ic die 
veSis px post fm Sci Jacobi Apli apud Exofi prius veflint p 
de#Qu Jur quia nult ven lo vie heat corpa Ic. — Ibid. m. 
3l9d. 

227. An account of a daring deed is preserved in the next 
extract from the De Banco Roll. Thomas Usher and others 
appear to have taken the Abbot, Leonard Houndalre, prisoner 
and carried him from Newenham to Bykele, and also detained 
his goods and chattels to the value of £40. The defendants 
did not put in an appearance. 

Jf Abbas de Nywenham p attorn suu op. se iiij*« die vsus 
Thorn Usshor Ricm Tryst T; Radih Paym de Colmpton de 
ptito quare ipi siml cu Johe Prentys de Honytoii Reginaldo 
Baker de Bradenynche 1 Johe Vautard de Clyst vi 1; armis 
ipm Abbtem apud Nywenham ceperunt % ipm abinde usq. 
Bykele duxerunt "^ ipm imprisonaverunt 1 male tractaverunt 
1 ipm sic in prisona ibm quousq^ idem Abbas finem p decern 
libras p delibacone sua henda cu pfat Thoma Rico Rado 
Johe Iteginaldo "t Johe fecisset detinuerunt T; bona 1 catalla 



sua ad valenc quadraginta libra^ apud Jdcam villam de 
Nywenham inventa ceperunt T; asportaverunt Et alia enor- 
mia Ic ad g'"ve dampnu Ic Et cent* pacem Rege "Ic Et 
ipi non vefi Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet eos Ic Et 
vie modo mand qd non sunt inventi Ic I6 sicut plur capianf 
Ita qd sint hie a die sci Michis in xv dies p justic T:c. — De 
Banco Roll, 5 Henry IV. Trinity, m. 307. 

228. The following relate to other legal proceedings, and 
sufficiently describe themselves. The third shows that the 
Abbot was a receiver for the Prince of Wales, probably of 
the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall. 

jf Abbas de Nywenham p attorfi suii op. se iiij*° die vsus 
Ricm Trist de piito quare cum de ^coi consilio regni Reg 
Angt pvisum sit qd non liceat alicui vastum vendicoem sen 
destruccoem fa2e de Sris domib} boscis seu gardinis sibi 
dimissis ad fmifi vite vel anno^ idem Ricus de domib} boscis 
T; gardinis in Tuddelieys que Ricus Excestre nup Abbas de 
Nywenham pdecessor pdci nunc Abbis pfato Rico dimisit ad 
?mifi annoA fecit vastum vendicoem 1 destruccoem ad ex- 
hedacoem eccHe ipius Abbtis be Marie de N^^enham T: cont"^ 
forma pvisionis pace Et ipe non ven Et attach est p Johem 
Mey 1 Ricm Masofi I'o ipi in mia Et prec est vie qd distr 
eu p omes Sras 1:c Et qd de exit Ic Et qd heat corpus eius 
hie a die sci Michis in vnu Mensem l^c. — De Banco Roll, 
8 Hen. IV. Trinity, m. 79. 

jf Johes Palmer de Brydport p attorfi suu op. se iiij^** die 
\?sus Leonardu Abbem de Newenham de ptito quod reddat ei 
quadraginta solidos Et 9sus Aliciam que fuit vx Johis Cole 
de Southmoltofi de ptito qd reddat ei decem marcas Et vsus 
Stephm Burdescombe de ptito qd reddat ei quadraginta soli- 
dos quos ei debent T; iniuste detinent Et ipi non vefi Et 
prec fuit vie qd sum eos T;c Et vie mand qd pdcus Abbas 
suin est Judm attach qd sit hie in Octabis sci Michis Et de 
^dcis Alicia 1; Stepho mand vie qd nichil hent T:c I'o 
capiant"" qd sunt hie ad Jfat ?mifi p Justic Ic ad quem vie 
non mis bre I'o pdcus Abbas sicuf prius et pdei Alicia 1 
Stephus sicut prius [to Hil. then to Easter.] — Ibid. m. 433 d. 

Jf Henr Princeps Watt p attorfi suu op. se iiij*° die Vsus 
Abbem de Newenham de piito qd reddat ei ronabilem compotu 
suu de tempore quo fuit receptor denar ipius Principis Et 
ipe non vefi Et sum Ic Judm attach qd sit hie a die sci 
Michis in tres septias T;c.— Ibid. m. 527 d. 



I 

pii"' ll:"" 
iF .IF' 

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NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



155 



jf Jur"" in? Johem Calmadya in ppria psona sua que? et 
Leonardu Abbem de Neweham de ptito f^nsgr ponit"" in 
respcm coram Dho Rege vsq^ in (j"8tino sci Johis Bapte 
vbicu% '^c p defcu Jur Quia nuUus T;c Vo vie heat corpa Ic 
Idem dies da? est ptibi pdcis T;c. 

Jf Jur"" in? Ricm Ualmadya in ppria psona sua quer' et 
Leonardu Abbem de Neweham Michm the Abbotes servant of 
Keweham 1 Thomam the Abbotes servant of Neweham de 
ptito f^nsgr poit"" in respcm coram Dno Rege vsq^ in C^stino 
sci Johis Bap?e vbiciiqj %c p detcu Jur Quia nullus Ic I'o 
vie heat corp Ic Idem dies datus est ptib) pdcis Ic. — Coram 
Rege Roll. Easter, 11 Henry IV. m. 8d. 

jf Abbas de Newenham qui tam p dno Rege q""m p se ipo 
sequit"" p aXl suu op. se iiij*° die vsus Johem Colewille de 
piito contemptus T; t'^nsgr cont"' forma statuti de Svientib} 
nup editi et ipe non ven et pceptum fuit vie qd capet eii et 
vie retorn qd ipe non est invent^ '\c I'o p/ceptu est vie qd 
Exigi fac eu de Com in Com quousq^ Ic vtlaget"" si non Ic et 
si Ic tunc eum capiat Et salvo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius 
cora dno Rege in Crastino Pur he Marie vbicuq^ 1,0 Et vnde 
a die Pasche in xv dies. — Ibid. m. 8d. 

229. The first of the last three documents I am able to 
quote shows that the Abbey had property upon the water as 
well as on the land, the Aboot of Abbotsbury, in the county of 
Dorset, and others, being charged with having taken a ship 
the property of the Monks of Newenham. Nicholas Wyse- 
beche, the Abbot, appeared at Exeter in person to support the 
complaint 

jf Nichus Abbas de Nyweham in ppria psona sua op. se 
iiij^*^ die 9sus Rohtm Abbem de Abbotysbury in Com Dor§ 
Radm Cokwyll de Abbotysbury in pdco Com Dorg yoman 
Johem Walshe de Dorchester in eodem Com DorS yoman 
Ricm Hille de Waymouth in pdco Com DorS yoman Wiltm 
Sandwyche de Setoii in pdco Com Devon yoman de ptito 
quare vi T; annis quandam navem ipius Nichi Abfeis procij 
quadraginta libraj^ apud*iSeton inven? ceperunt l abduxerunt 
1 alia enormia "^c Ad g""ve dampnu Ic Et cont"" pace Reg 
.Ic Et ipi non veii Et prec fuit vie qd attach eos Ic Et 
vie modo mand qd quilibet eox attach est p Riem ffoys 1 
Johem Gyon I'o ipi in mia I o prec est vie qd distr eos p 
omes ?ras %c Et qd de exit T,c Et qd heat corpora eoi hie 
a die see Trinitatis in xv dies Ic [Further postponed to 



Mich., Hil., Easter, and Mich, following.]— De Banco Roll. 
6 Henry V. Easter, m. 248. 

jf Nichus Abbas de Nyweham p Johem Trelay att suu op. 
se iiij*" die v'sus Wittm ffrankeleyn de Setofi in Com pdco 
Bocher de pHlo quare vi T: armis bona T; catalla ipius Abbtis 
ad valenciam centu solido^ apud Bere inventa cepit 1 aspor- 
tavit Et alia enormia Ic ad g^ve dampnu Ic Et cont"^ 
pacem Ic Et ipe non vefi Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd 
capet eum si Ic Et salvo Ic Ita qd heret corpus eius hie 
ad hunc diem scitt a die Pasche in xv dies Et vie modo 
mand qd non est inventus T:c I'o prec est vie qd exigi fac 
eum de Com in Com quousq, Ic vtlaget'^si non Ic Et si Ic 
tunc eum capiat Et salvo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie in 
crastino aia^ Et vnde.— Ibid. m. 269d. 

jT Wal?us Cool^ cticus in pp*a psona sua op se iiij*« die 
vsus Nichm Abbem de Nywenliam in com jydco de ptito qd 
reddat ei centum solidos' Et Vsus Adam Geraunt de Axe- 
mynstr in eodem com Husbondman T: Johannam vxJem ems 
de plito qd reddant ei centu solidos quos ei debent 1 iniuste 
detinent T:c Et ipi non ven Et prec fuit vie qd attach eos Ic 
Et vie modo mand qd uVq, eoj attach est p Ricm Brouii 1 
Johem Coll Fo ipi in mia Ic Et prec est vie qd distr eos p 
omes ?ras Ic Et qd de exit T:c Et qd heat corpora co^ hie 
in Octabis see Trinitatis T:c.— Ibid. m. 271. 

jf Johes Cole in ppria psona sua op se iiij*° die v*sus Nichm 
Abbem de Nywenham in com pdco de ptito qd reddat ei 
octo libras 1 duodecim solidos Et Vsus Leonardu Abbem de 
ClyfF in com Soi3§ de plito qd reddat ei octo libras T: decern 
solidos Et vsus Johem Parys de Dertemouth in com Deyoii 
mercatorem de ptito qd reddat ei octo marcas Et vsus Ricm 
AVorthy de Dertemouth in eodem com Devon Bocher de 
ptito qd reddat ei quadraginta Isex solidos T; octo denar Et 
Vsus Johem Broun de Wyke in J^dco com Soms husbondman 
[qd] reddat ei quadraginta solidos quos ei debent T: iniuste 
detinent Ic Et ipi non ven Et prec fuit vie qd distr p^dcos 
Abbem de Nywenham % Abbem de ClyfF 1 Johem Parys Et 
eciam sicut prius qd capet pdcos Ricm 1 Johem Broun '\c 
Et vie modo mand qd vVq, pdco^ Abbtum distr est p catalla, 
ad valenc quadraginta denar Et vtq, eo^ m p Ricm Poyer 
Johem Waye Johem Treysewe % Henricu Waye I'o ipi in 
mia Et sicut prius prec est vie qd distr eos p omes tras Ic 
Et qd de exit Ic Et qd heat corpora eo^ hie a die see 



■■■gg-> 



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NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



157 



Trinitatis in xv dies Et de pdco Johe Parjs mand vie qd 
nichil liet Ic Et de ^deis Rico 1 Johe Broun mand vie qd 
non sunt inven! Ic I'o ^dcus Johes Parys capiat"* et eciam 
sicut plur pdci Ricus Brouii capiant^ Ita qd sint hie ad pfatii 
?min %c Ad que die vie non misit bre Ic I'o sicut plur ^dci 
Abbes distr Ic [for Mich terra, then in Hilary term all the 
defendants to be here]. — Ibid. m. 329 d. 

230. The arms of the Abbey were apparently those of the 
founder De Mohun. The common seal was the Blessed 
Virgin seated, with the Holy Child, under a canopy, with 
shields on each side, — one bearing the engrailed cross of 
Mohun, the other the Maunche. The legend is Jb. C®^* 
V1B1^€V^ i«#Na|bCIBKil mm §iVmilBn^fi. Three of the 
Abbot's seals are mentioned and described by Davidson, 
p. 87. 

231. For a description of the remains of the buildings I 
must refer my readers to the History of Mr. Davidson, to 
which work my paper is only supplemental. The monastic 
buildings were on the south side of the church, and probably 
the whole ground-plan could be traced by excavation. Of 
the magnificent church, nearly three hundred feet in length, 
within the walls of which the bodies of many distinguished 
persons were laid, not a vestige remains above the ground, 
and the other scanty remains are gradually disappearing. 
The east end of the building, with the Early English triplet 
light, of which Mr. Davidson gives an engraving, has now 
fallen. The little stream, the invariable accompaniment of 
a Cistercian abbey, sometimes overflows its banks, and washes 
out from the adjoining soil human bones, indicating the site 
of the monks' cemetery. No crime of its inmates, no con- 
piracy against the common weal, brought the stately house 
of Newenham thus low. The pension list attests that the 
abbot and his monks were honest and of good conversation, 
and thev and their property but shared the common fate of 
thousands as guiltless as themselves. " 

232. The evidence for the history of this house is full and 
interesting. The cartulary and some of the original books 
of the Abbey are in existence. They are referred to by 
Mr. Davidson and fiilly described, and Dr. Oliver prints in the 
appendix to his notice in tlie Afonasticon Devoniensis some 
interesting documents. 



APPENDIX. 



List of the Abbots of Nbwenham. 



Names. 


Dates. 


Authorities. 


John Godard .... 


1246-1248 




Henry de Persolte, or Spersholte 


1248-1250 




John de Ponte Roberti . 


1250-1252 




Geoflfry de Blanchville 


1252-1262 




Hugh de Cokeswell 


1262-1265 




John de Northampton 


1265-1272 




William de Cornubia 


1272-1288 


Tol347tliechartulary 


Richard de Chichester 


1288-1293 


of the Abbey com- 


Richard de Pedirton 


1293-1297 


piled in the abbacy of 


William de Fria 


1297-1303 


Walter de la Hone. 


Richard de Pedirton, again 


1303-1304 




Ralph de Shapwick . 


1304-1314 




Bobert de Pupplisbiiry . 


1314-1321 




John de Cokiswille . 


13211324 




John de Geytyngton 


1324 1338 




Walter de la Hone . 


1338-lb61 


Davidson, 


Richard Branescombe 


1361-1391 


Oliver's Monasticon, 


John Legga's .... 


1391-1402 


the Bishops' Regis- 


Leonard Houndalre. . « . 


1402-1413 


ters, &c., &c., are the 


Nicholas Wysebeche 


1413-1431 


authorities for the 


Trystram Crucherne 


1431-1456 


names and times of 


William Hunteford 


1456- ? 


election of the suc- 


John ? 


? 1512 


ceeding Abbots. 


John Ellys .... 


1512-1525 




John Ilmynster, alias Cabell 


1525-1530 


» 


Richard Gyll .... 


1530-1539 


fi 



Y 2 



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CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON 



V. 



DUNKESWELL. 



Mk - 1 



r 






X 

I 



THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 

DUNKESWELL. 



233. Dunkeswell Abbey, one of the three Cistercian houses, 
the others being Newenham and Ford, situated within a 
comparatively short distance of one another in the east of 
the county, has but a meagre history. Founded in 1201, by 
the piety of Wilh'am Lord Briwere or Bruere, it flourished 
for nearly three hundred and fifty years. 

234. In 1199 William Briwere purchased the manor of 
Dunkeswell of Henry de la Pomeroy, which purchase was 
confirmed by King John at York, 28th March, in the first 
year of his reign. There seems however some little confusion 
here, for the property formerly belonged to William Fitz- 
william, who was compelled by his necessities* to borrow 
money of a Jew and mortgage Dunkeswell manor. It is 
said that William Briwere redeemed the land from the Jew, 
but the evidence offered by the confirmation charter of King 
John above mentioned contradicts this. 

235. Early in the new century the new Abbey was founded, 
— Dunkewelle fundata est, say the Annals of Waverley,t and 
by a deed dated at Southampton on 13th April, in the 
seventh year of his reign. King John confirmed the lands 
the donation of William Briwere, as well as those the gifts of 
others. 

236. The gifts of William Briwere were all his lands in 
Don eke-well and Wolford and the advowsons of the churches 
there; the abbot and convent of Ford gave their right in 
Biwood; Richard de Hydon all his land in Bureheghe; 
Richard de Treminett all his land in Bautescnapp ; William 
de Pynn all his land in Bautescnapp ; John de Thoriton a 
ferling of land in Stenetewde ; Ivo Fitz-Allen the manor of 
Sobbecumbe ; Richard de Mannesley a tenement in La 
Cumba [Marlecombe] ; Thomas de Duna all his land in 

• Ly sons' Devon, p. 170. 

t Ann. Waverleia, Ann. Monast. vol. ii. p. 253. 



*f 



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THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



DUNKESWELL ABBEY. 



161 



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il I 



Uggaton, and a tenement in Codeford ; Philip de Gatesden 
a ferling of land in Uggaton (this was a purchase) ; Robert 
Fitzanne all his right in the tenement of Lynor and By wood; 
and Ursellus Fitzwilliam his right in the same tenements. 

237. In the 11 th year of the succeeding monarch, Henry 
III., we have a further confirmation of the possessions of the 
Abbey, from which we find that the founder and others had 
bestowed further gifls upon the house. Besides the lands of 
Dunkeswell and Wolford, Briwere had given it all his lands 
in the manor of Ufculme, with the mill there, and the monks 
of Ford had bestowed upon their newly settled brethren, 
besides Biwood, all their lands in Boleham, Freschic, Boc- 
land, Lodreford, and Hickersdon; Robert, the nephew of 
Robert le Goiz, his right in Lynor, and Avicia de Dun her 
land at Hoked. 

238. It is easy to understand the gifts of the Cistercians of 
Ford, for Dunkeswell was her daughter, the new Abbey 
having been colonised by monks from the house of the founda- 
tion of Adelicia de Brioniis. 

239. The powerful founder selected Dunkeswell as the 
place of his interment, passing by the other religious founda- 
tions which owed their existence to his bounty, and there 
in the year 1227, in the choir of the Abbey church, his body 
was laid. It is supposed that his lady was also buried there, 
for a short time since two stone coffins, covered with plain 
slabs of Purbeck, were found, each containing a skeleton, one 
of a man, the other of a woman. In all probability these 
were the bones of Lord Briwere and his wife, thus disturbed 
after a period of nearly six hundred and fifty years. All the 
bones were placed in one of the coffins and reinterred ; the 
other coffin still remains above the ground, and may be seen 
under the south-east wall of the present churchyard of 
Dunkeswell Abbey. 

240. We have but few documents illustrative of the history 
of Dunkeswell. The course of its existence appears to have 
been uneventful. We do not even know who the first abbot 
was, and the names of his immediate successors are wanting, 
but I am able to furnish the name of an abbot earlier than 
any yet recorded. This is Richard, who in 1228 bought of 
Richard de Crues three hundred and sixty-eight acres of land 
in Coleton. 

Hec est final concordia fca in Curia Dni Reg apd ExoB 
die sci Jacob Apti Anno Regn Reg Henr fit Reg Johis 



Duodeciih. Cora Thorn de Muleton Robto de Lexinton Rad 
Musard Johe de Baioc % Jordan Oli? Justic ItiSantib} 1 
aliis dni Reg fidelibj T;c ibi psentib3. In? Ric de Crues petente 
1 Ricard Abbem de Donekewiit Tenente de Tricent 1 sexa- 
ginta 1 octo acris ?re cu ptin in Coletofi. Ufi placi! fuit 
inteos i ^fata Curia. Scit qd pdcs Ric remisit T; q»et clamavit 
de se % liedib^ suis Ipi Abbati 1_ successorib3 suis 1 Ecctie 
sue de Donekf wilt in ppetuii. Totii Jus T; clamiii quod habuit 
in tota pdca fra cu ptiii. Et p h"^ remissioe q'eta clamacia 
fine T; cocordia Ide Abbas dedit ^dco Ric q'nam arc argnti. 
—Feet of Fines, Henry III. Devon, No. 83. 

241. The next Abbot of whom we have any mention is 
Ralph, Vir quidem morum gravitate ac sapientue fulgore non 
mediocriter adornatus. He it was probably who obtained, in 
1242, Sept. 21st, from the nephew of the founder, William 
Briwere Bishop of Exeter, an appropriation of the emolu- 
ments of the parish church of Dunkeswell, and a few days 
afterwards, 30th Sept., the Bishop gave to the Abbey the ad- 
vowson and revenues of another church dedicated to St. David, 
and called Doddington, which cannot now be traced. In 1251 
Ralph, who had been a monk of Tintern, was appointed Ab- 
bot of Waverley, in Surrey, and left the banks of the Culme 
for those of the Wey. He succeeded on the death of 
Abbot Walter Giffard, the 10th Abbot, in 1252. The Annals 
of Waverley say: — " Litera dominicalibus B. dies Paschae 
xvi. Kal. Maii. Eodem anno dominus Radulphus monachus 
Sancte Marias de Waverleia, qui quondam abbatizaverat in 
dorao de Tinterna, electus est in abbatem de Donekwell : vir 
quidem morum gravitate ac sapientiae fulgore non mediocriter 
adornatus." — Ann. Wav. p. 336. 

242. Ralph was succeeded by Thomas, whose name occurs 
as early as 1253. In 1259, Dec. 5th, Bishop Bronescombe 
dedicated a new parish church at Dunkeswell. In the follow- 
ing February he issued a decree with reference to the church 
of Doddeton, the font and bells of which had been removed, 
and the building altogether disused for divine service. The 
Abbot and convent were cited to appear, and admitting the 
facts, submitted themselves to the Bishop's directions, which 
were that the church should be re-opened and daily service 
said therein. During the rule of this Abbot he greatly in- 
creased the possessions of the convent by exchanges and 
dealings with the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem. 






ill " 



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ki 



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ii i 



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162 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



243. Between Thomas and John the next Abbot, according 
to Oliver, is a long lapse of time, and there is little doubt but 
that the names of some intermediate Abbots are wanting. I 
am able to furnish some information as to what took place in 
connection with the house during this period, but un- 
fortunately the names of the Abbots mentioned are not given. 
The first is from the Hundred Roll, the jury finding that the 
Abbey held the manor of Broadhembury, in tlie noil called 
" de Hambiri." 

Hoc est veredcm Hundr de Harrig. 
Henr de Kyngesford. Joties Norman. Robts de Cliffewilmo. 
Rics de la Forde. Walts de Ba. Wilts le Engleys. Witts de 
Godeford. Petrus de Fonte. Phs de Siccavilla. Rogs de la 
More. Drogo de Foforde, T; Rob?s le Engleys duodecim Jur 
de Harrigg dnt sup sacrm suum quod • • • 

• « « • • « • 

Km dnt qd Abbas de Donkeswille tenet maSium de Hambiri 
a quondam ptinebat ad baroniam de Toritone In tpe Witti 
de Toritone Qui Wilis dedit dcm manlium cu suis ptinenc 
Witto Briwere T: idem Wittus Briwere dedit dcm mariium 
dco Abbati de Donkeswille in libam 1 ppetuam elemosiam. 

Jf Et Idem Abbas tit furc**"s ass"" panis T; cvisie utinen? ad 
ad pdcm mafiiu suu de Hambir ex antiq" T; ex c firmacone 
dni reg Johis T^ dni reg. H. pris reg qui nunc est. Et dna 
Amicia comitissa devonie ht furcas » * • «f 

— Exchequer, Treasure of Receipt. Hundred Rolls ; Devon, 
No. 18. 

244. From the Coroner's Roll I am able to refer to what 
appear to be important proceedings taken by the Abbot against 
certain persons who had wrongfully, entered upon the manor 
of Hakepenne, and ejected the monks and conversi belonging 
to the abbey who happened to be there. 

Jf Johs de Cogan Thorn filius ejus Phus de Cogan 1 Rofets 
de Stolkeye Johs Comyn Ricus de la Hutt Eusths le Hey- 
ward Robts le Selcr de Ofcomt Rogs de la Forde Wittus le 
Turner Rics de la more Johs Boneweye Waits Hogh Wilt's 
le Haueker * Johs Everedd Ricus le Bakere Wilts Scribi 1 
Robts Scotte attach fuerut ad respond Atfcti de Donekeswell 
de plito qua? ipi simt cu Robto le Hunte Gilfeto Hereward 1 
aliis malefactorib} ignotis maSiu ipius Abbtis apud Hakepenne 
vi et armis ingressi domes suas ibidm fregunt 1; furcas ejusdm 

• Hawker elsewhere. 



DUNKESWELL ABBEY. 



163 



Atfctis in solo suo pp'o ibidin juxta libtates Abbatib} ejusdm 
loci p pgenitor regis concessas ut dicif" levatas noctanr 
pst'^vut asptavut T; cobusserut T; menaces convsos abbath 
f/dce ibidm inventos inde ejecrunt in ipius Abbtis dapnu 
gravissimu 1 cont" pace Ic Et unde idm Abbas quer"^ qd 
pdci Johs 1 alii simul cu pdcis Robto le Hunte Gilbto Here- 
ward T: aliis malefactorib} ignotis in vigilia sco^ innocenciu 
Anno r Dni Regis nunc vicesimo septimo Ma8iu pdcm ipius 
Atfctis de Hakepenne vi T; armis ingressi domos suas ibidm 
fregunt T; furcas ejusdm Abba?' jux"" libtates ^dcas Ic ibidm 
levatas noctan? pst^'vut 1: illas asptavut usq, manliu pdci 
Johis de Cogan de Ofcomb * 1 ibi illas cobussert 1 menaces T; 
convsos Abbathie pdce in pdco maSio de Hakepenne inventos 
inde ejeSunt 1 ?vientes ipius Abbis videl! Phm le Messer T; 
Johm de Heyles 9bavut vlSavut p quod idm Abbas amisit 
eoa ?vicium p unu quar?iu anni T; aplius T: t sexaginta boves 
% viginti vaccas ipius Abbtis in p^dco maSio suo invent 
ceprut 1 eos fugav*ut usq^ pdcm mafiiu pdci Job Cogan de 
Ofcomb 1 ibi eos inpcavut racone cuj^ impcamti tresdecini 
boves de pdcis pierut % dui boves T; vacce residui deteriorati 
fuiit ad valenc viginti libr in ipius Abbtis dampnu gravissimii 
nt cont"^ pace Ic Unde die qd deSioratus est 1 Dapnu ht ad 
valenc Centu libr ^ inde pducit secta Ic. 

Et Johs de Cogan 1; alii ven Et Thorn fit Job Cogan T; oms 
alii excep? ipo Johne T: pdcis Eustach le Heywai'd Wiito le 
Hauekere Wal?o Hugh T: Robto le Scote dnt qd ipi nulla 
pdcai trangr pdco Abbti intulerut cont"* pacem Ic put eis 
imponit 1 de hoc pofi se sup pa?am Et Abbas simitr lo tit 
inde Jur*. _ 

Et Johs Cogan Eustach Wiito le Hauekere Walts^ Hugh 1 
Robts Scote dnt qd ipi nulla t^nsgr pdcoAbbti intutit contra 
pacem Ic dfit enim qd pdCus Johs Cogan bet in pdco manlio 
suo de Ufculm libtate hndi in fangenethef utfangenethef 1 
ftircas T: oia que ad huj^ libtate ptinent T; quia pdcus Abbas 
in mafiio suo pdco de' Hakepenne qd est infra pcinctu pdci 
mafiii ipius Johis de Ofcomb levasse voluit furcas de novo in 
lesione T: pjudiciu libtatis ipius Johis idem Johis pcepit pdcis 
Eustach 1 aliis qd ipi pdcm Abbtem huj^ furcas ibidem leva? 
non pmit?ent qui quid Eustach % alii ipm Abbtem de pdcis 
ftirc ibidm levand impediverGt sicut eis bn licuit Et qd aliam 
tftsf ei no fe2unt cent"" pace 1c poii se sup patam Et Abb 
die qd ipi furcas f levavit in pjudm libtat dci Johis T;c die 



♦ Ulfculm elsewhere. 



t Query, non omitted. 



-wii!i,:.-i 
If 



164 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVOK. 



DUNKESWELL ABBEY. 



165 




enim qd diis J. Rex av^ diii Rf nunc cocessit T; carta sua 
cofirm Abbathie de Donkweft 1 Monach ibide deo 5vient in 
pur It ppef Elemog qd pdca Abbatfea Abbas T; Monachi ibide 
deo svient heant 1 teneant omes terr T: ten que huerut ex 
dono Witti le Brewere i maSio T;c et qcumq^ alia que infu- 
turii adq'sierint cu Socco T; Sacca Tol l Theam T; Infangene- 
thief Utfangenethief Et diis H. Rex pr diii Re§ nuc eosde 
libtat pdce Abbathie Ic p cartam suam ^cessit T; cofirmavit 1 
pfert pdcas cart que h testanf Et die qd a tempe confeccois 
cartarC illaj^ oes ^decessores sui Abbates T. ipe huerut in 
manlio suo pdco de Hakepenne furcas suaa quousq^ pdcus 
Johes Cogan furc itt pstnere fecit Ipe ipius Abbatis nunc [on 
tlie dorse is the following] l p quod ftita inde in? ipos Johem 
1, Abbtem contr^'versia pdcs JoiSs Cogan p septum suum pd 
cocessit p se Ti her T; assig^'tis suis ipi Abbti 1; coventui suo 
qd ipi % eorf successores heant 1; teneant omes lifetates 1 
libas con§ in cofirmacoib} dnor^ Johis T; Henr Regii con- 
tentas in Puram T; ppetua Elemosinam Imppm Et pfert 
pdcm sciptu ipius Johis quod hoc idem testaf^ 1 die qd ipe 
statim post confeccom pdci scpti furcas suas repare fecit in 
pdico maSiio suo de Hakepenne que ibi ste&it p ij annos T; 
ampli^ qus% pdci Johs Cogan T: alii furcas iUas pst verut sicud 
sup"^dcm est Et hoc petit qd inquir T;c. 

Et Johes bn cogii pdcm scptu % ouicquid in eo continet' 
Set die qd tempe cofecconis illi^ scpti pdcus Abbas nullas 
fiircas huit in pdco mafl io suo de Hakepenne nee unq^"' postea 
quousq^ jam de novo qd idem Abbas furcas ibide levasse 
voluit 1 Pdci Eustach Wifts le Hawkere Wal?us Hug 1 
Robtus Scote p pceptii ipius Johis ipm Abbate inde im- 
pediv^ut sic sup"^acm est. Et qd nullam aliam t'nsg*ssionem 
ei fecerut qt"" pace le ponut se sup pa?am ? Abbas sitr Ido fiat 

inde Jur"" Jur dnt sup sacrm suu qd pdci Thorn fii Johis 

de Cogan, Ricus de la Huit, Eustach le Heyward, Rog'us de 
la Ford, Witts le Tumur, Ricus de la More, Johes Boneweye, 
Wal?us Hughe, Witts te Haweker, Johes E^ard, Ricus le 
Bakere, Witts Scby 1 Robtus Scote p pceptu 1 assensu 
pdco^ Johis de C T; R de Scote furcas pdci Abbatis in pdco 
Manlio suo 4© Hakepenne in pdca vigit innocenciu noctanP 
pst'^verut % furcas illas ad ma3iu pdci Johis de Cogan de 
tJfculm cariavut 1 ibi eas cohusserut, quas quidem furcas 
idem Abbas scdm libtates a Reg Angt Abbathie de Donkes- 
weft % Monach T;c concessas huit in pdco manis suo levatas, 
fere p duos annos ante q pstate fuut % furcis illis sic pstratis 
pdcus Johes de Cogan levare fecit furcas suas in solo ipius 



Abba?, inf"" pdcm maSiu ipius Abbatis de Hakepenne. Et q^ 
pdcus Abbas ps?ne fecit furcas ipi^ Johis in solo ipius Abbatis 
levatas pdci Thorn fit Johis Ricus de la Hutt, Ewstachius, 
Johes de Bonewey, Wal?us Hug, Witts le Hawekere, Johes 
Ev*ard, Ricus le Bakere, T: Witts Scribi in c^'stino die sequent 
pdcm manSiu pdci Abbatis de Hakepenne int*^ verut '\ hostiu 
aule quod clausum inveSant ibidem freg'ut T; ?vient ipius 
Abbatis in eodem manlio inventos v'beravut videl} Phm le 
Mess T; Johem de Heyles. Et postea cepunt if^ eude maSiu 
boves T: vacc ipius Abbatis circi? quadrag quos fugav'ut usq^ 
pcu pdci Johis de Cogan de Ufculm % ibi eos impcavut racone 
cuj' impcamen? tres de eisdem pierut ad dampnu ipius 
Abbatis quadrag li. Et Jur quesit si pdci Thorn % alii fre^ut 
pdcu hostiu T;c p pceptu pdco& Johis de Cogan T; Robti de 
Stokhey. Dicut qd pdci Thoni T: alii v pceptu T; assensu 
ipius Johis de Cogan ibidem veBiit s} iaem Johes no pcepit 
eis aliquod hostiu frange un post factum illud illos receptavit 
T; adhuc plures de illis receptat in svico suo Ic. 



M 

1 



Coroner's Roll, Devon. 34 



5- 3 27 Edward I. 



245. John was blessed, as appears by Bishop Stapeldon's Re- 
gister, 1 7th Oct. 1311, at Yarcombe, after the dedication of the 
high altar there. He was not Abbot long, as we find that his 
successor William was blessed in Exeter Cathedral on Palm 
Sunday, 1318. I quote two entries from the De Banco Roll. 

(f Abbas de Donekeswelle p Adam de Bauntofi at? suu op. 
se iiij*** die 9su8 Wittm Vyncent de ptito qd reddat ei rona- 
bilem compotu suu de tempore quo fuit receptojj denar ipius 
Abbtis T;c Et ipe non veil Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd 
capet eu T;c Et vie modo mand qd bre adeo tarde venit ^c 
1*0 sicut plur prec est vie qd cap eii si Ic Et salvo le Ita 
qd heat corpus eius hie a die sci Hillar in xv dies l;c Et vie 
sit.— De Banco Roll, 19 Edw. II. Mich. (m. 210). 

Jf Wittus Abbas de Donkeswelle p Adam de Baunton att 
suQ op. se iiij'® die vsus Wittm Pyioun '\ Robtm Don de ptito 
quare ipi simul cum Henr de Campo Arnulphi T; Walto 
Grydie cepunt a9ia ipius Abbis et ea iniuste detinuerunt cont"" 
vadiii T; pleg Ic Et ipi non ven Et pdcus Witts attach 
fuit p Wal?m Gydie 1 Robtm Don Et j^dcs Robts p Wittm 
Pyioun T; Waltm Gydie Id ipi in mia Et prec est vie qd 
distr eos p oes tr T;c Et qd heat corpa eorx hie a die Pasche 
in q'nqj septias T;c. — Ibid. (m. 414 d) 19 Edw. II. Mich. 

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166 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



246. Little more than three years afterwards William's 
successor, William de Wanlake, was consecrated Abbot, 
8th Sept. 1321, at the Bishop's palace at Clyst. For the 
Abbots succeeding William de Wanlake I can only quote 
Oliver • and the Bishop's Hegisters. 

247. John followed William, and Simon was blessed at 
Chudleigh by Bishop Grandisson, 22nd Feb. 1341. The 
cellarer of Newenham was elected in the stead cf Simon 22nd 
April, 1346. William Wedmore followed, 7th April, 1353, 
and Robert Orchard was blessed at the palace at Chudleigh by 
Bishop Brantyngham, 20th April, 1382. Alexander Burles- 
combe was Abbot in 1397, and two years afterwards Richard 
Lamport was elected, 17th July, 1399. In Richard's time we 
find several entries in the Banco Roll, principally relating to 
pleas of debt in which the Abbot was plaintiff. 

Jf Abbas Monas?ij de Donkeswill p attorii suu op se iiij*** 
die 9sus Robtum Clauenesburgh Gifctum Bobbeknolle Ricm 
Bakere de Honyton hostiller 1 Ricm Dryewode de plito qd 
quilt eoa reddat ei quadraginta marcas quas ei debet T; iniuste 
detinet ^c Et ipi non ven Et sicut prius prec fuit vie qd 
capet eos Ic Et vie modo mand qd non sunt inven? %c I'o 
sicut plur capiant"^ qd sint hie in octab sci Michis Ic. — De 
Banco Roll Trin. 2 Hen IV. m. 52 d. 

Jf Ricus Abbas de Dunkeswyll p attorn suu op se iiij*° die 
9su8 Thomam Ammary de ptito quare vi T; armis arbores T; 
subboscum ipius Abbis ad valenc decem libra^ apud Dunkes- 
wyll nup crescent succidit T; asportavit 1 blada 1 hbam sua 
ad valenc centum solido^ ibm nup crescen? cum quibusdam 
av^ijs depastus fuit conculcavit 1 consumpsit 1; alia enormia 
Ic ad g**"ve dampnu "^c 1 cent"' pacem Regis Ic Et ipe non 
ven Et prec fuit vie qd attach eii Ic Et vie modo mand qd 
nichil iiet Ic I'o prec est vie qd capiat eu si Ic Et salvo 
Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie A die sci Michis in xv dies 
Ic.— De Banco Roll, Trin. 2 Hen. IV. m. 152. 

jf Ricus Abbas de Dnnkeswill p attorii suii op se iiij*** die 
9sus Nichm Sturgioii de plito qd reddat ei quadraginta solidos 
quos ei debet 1 iniuste detinet '^c Et ipe non ven Et sicut 
phu prec fuit vie qd distr eum '^c Et vie modo mand qd distr 
est p catalla ad valenc decem % octo denarin^ Et m p Johem 
Hunt Wiitm Craweford Thomam Stowe 1 Wilim Nooke I'o 
ipi in mia "^c Et sicut plur prec est vie qd distr eum p omes 

♦ Monasticon, p. 394. 



DUNKESWELL ABBEY. 



167 



tras %c Et qd de exit Ic Et qd heat corpus eius hie in Octab 
sci Michis "^c.— De Banco Roll, Trin. 2 Henry IV. m. 159. 



Ii'i'i'tO 



(f Abbas de Dunkiswill p Johem Cole attorn suu op se iiij 
die v'sus Waltm DoUebeare ctieu de ptito qd reddat ei quin- 
quaginta solidos quos ei debet T; iniuste detinet Htc Et ipe 
non veil Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet eu Ic Et vie 
modo mand qd non est invent^ T;c I'o sicut plur capiat"" 
Ita qd sit hie a die sci Michis in xv dies p Justic T,c. 

Idm Abbas p attorii suii pdcm op se iiij*** die 9sus Johem 
Vssher 1 Isoldam vxorem eius de ptito qd reddant^ei quad- 
raginta solidos quos ei debent 1 iniuste detinent Ic Et ipi 
non ven Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet eos si Ic Et 
salvo Ic Ita qd heret corpa eoi ad hunc diem scitt in Octa- 
bis see Trinitatis Ic Et vie modo mand qd non sun^ inventi 
Ic I'o prec est vie qd exigi fac eos de Com in Com quousq^ 
%€ Jdcus Johes vtlaget"" T; pdca Isabella wayviet"^ Si non Ic 
Et si Ic tunc eos capiat Et salvo Ic Ita qd heat corpa eo^ 
hie in crastino Pur be Marie Et vnde Ic Ad que die vie 
non mi§ bre I'o de novo exigant"" in forma pdca qd sint hie 
in Octab sci Michis Et \Tide Ic.— De Banco Roll, Trin. 
2 Hen. IV. m. 280 d. 

Jf Jur^ in? Thomam Aunger quer 1 Ricm Abbem de Don- 
keswyll T; frem Alexm Burgoyn Comonachum eiusdem Abbis 
Johem Leygh Wiitm Wolmari 1 Witlm liomen de ptito 
transgr ponit*^ in respcm hie vsq, a die sci Michis in xv dies 
nisi Justic dni Regis ad assisas in Com pdco capiend assigfi 
p formam statuti Ic die lune px post fm sci Jacobi Apli apud 
Exon prius veSint p detcu Jur quia nuUus ven I'o vie heat 
corpora T;c.— De Banco Roll, Trin. 8 Henry IV. (m. 24, 6d). 

(f Abbas de Dunkeswill p att suu op se iiij*** die vsus 
Thoma Aunger de ptito qd reddat ei decem libras quas ei 
debet T; iniuste detinet T;c Et ipe non veil Et prec fuit vie 
qd distr eu Ic Et vie mand pd nichil tiet Ic I'o capiat"^ qd 
sit hie a die sci Michis in xv dies Ic ad quem diem vie non 
misit bre I'o sicut prius capiat"^ qd sic hie a die sci Hillar in 
XV dies Ic.— De Banco Roll, Trin. 8 Henry IV. m. 252 d. 

jf Abbas de Domkeswell p Johem Cole attorn suii op se 
iiijto ^[q ^sus Ri^m Bakere de Honyton 1 Thomam Davy de 
Honyton de ptito qd v?qj eoj^ reddat ei viginti 1 duas marcas 
sex solidos 1; octo denar quos ei debent 1 iniuste detinent 



* 'I 






^*<is?;- 



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168 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



%c Et ipi non ven Et sicut plur prec fuit vie qd capet eos 
si %c Et salvo Ic Ita qd heret corpora eoi hie ad hunc diem 
scitt a die sci Trinitatis in xv dies Ic Et vie modo mand qd 
non sunt inventi T;c I'o prec est vie qd exigi fac eos de Cora 
in Com quousq^ Ic vtlagent"" si non \c Et si Ic tunc eos 
capiat K.t salvo Ic Ita qd heat corpora eo^ hie a die sci 
Hillar in xv dies Et vnde Ic. — De Banco Roll, Trin. 8 
Henry IV. m. 298d. 

248. John Bokeland, 10th June 1419, John Ottery, 26th 
April 1439, Simon, 13th February 1441, were Abbots, as 
shown by the Bishop's Registers, and by leases examined by 
Dr. Oliver, and from the former we find that Richard Pyt- 
mynster was Abbot in 1492, and as late as 1498. John 
Whitmore succeeded, and was Abbot twenty years.* 

249.* The last Abbot was John Ley, who was confirmed in 
1529 by the suffragan Bishop of Exeter. On the 14th Feb. 
1539 hQ surrendered his house to the King's Commissioners. 
There appear to have been seven monks in the Abbey at the 
time of the surrender, viz., John Webbe, William Boreman, 
John Grave, John Segar, John Genyng, John Benett, and 
Thomas Typson. The Abbot, John Ley, on the death of the 
Abbot of Ford, John Tybbes, in 1556, became Vicar of Pea- 
hembury. John Gay, one of the monks, was appointed on 
the Dissolution perpetual curate of Sheldon, formerly belong- 
ing to the Abbey. 

250. The annual value of the property of the Abbey at the 
surrender was nearly £300. The site of the monastic build- 
ings, the home farm and mill, and other lands, were granted 
with large possessions, of which the owners were ruthlessly 
deprived, to John Lord Russell by letters patent dated 4th 
July, 31 Henry VIII. He does not seem to have retained 
them very long, for we find soon after that parts originally 

fiven to him reverted to the Crown and fresh grants made, 
b trace the successive owners of the various lands be- 
longing to the Abbey would be tedious and uninteresting. 

251. The Abbey adopted the arms of its founder, William 
de Briwere, — two bends wavy. The fine common seal, up- 
wards of three inches long, represents the Blessed Virgin 
with Saints on either side, all under canopies. Unfortunately 

* OliTer, MonasticoD, p. 394. 



DUNKESWELL ABBEY. 



169 



there is but one impression of this seal extant, which is very 
mutilated. Below the Saint on the sinister side of the 
central figure is a shield with the De Briwere arms. An 
impression from an Abbot's counter-seal is also preserved. 
It is vesiea-shaped, about one and six-eighths of an inch long. 
The Abbot is represented standing, hol(Eng his crozier in his 
right hand. 

252. There were four bells in the tower of the church at the 
Dissolution, valued at £32 5s. The lead went to the recipient 
of the Abbey lands, and the entry relating to it curtly says, 
" My Lord of Bedford had the leade w^*^ the eifte of the 
land." ^ 

253. My Lord of Bedford took care to appropriate the lead, 
without reference to the preservation of the fabric, with every- 
thing else capable of being turned into money, and the grand 
buildings, for such they must have been, and the despoiled 
abbey, soon shared the fate of many a stately monastery, for 
centuries the home of labour, almsgiving, and prayer. 

254. In dry summers the foundations of the church and of 
some of the important buildings may be traced by the grass 
above them being quickly scorched. The western tower has 
fallen within a comparatively recent period. Portions of the 
eate-house remain, and fragments of walls still standing in- 
dicate the positions of certain of the original edifices, and I 
think that a little time and some digging would enable one to 
make a ground-plan of the whole of the monastic buildings. 
A modern - church has been recently built upon the site of 
the antient cemetery. The situation of the Abbey is very 
secluded, but very beautiful and very characteristic of a 
Cistercian selection. 



I. 



' ». 







170 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



APPENDIX. 



List of the Abbots of Dunkeswell. 



Names. 



Bichard . 

Ralph 

Thomas . 

John 

William . 

William de Wanlake 

John 

Simon 

William Wedmore . 

Robert Orchard 

Alexander Burlescombe 

Richard Lamport 

John Bokeland 

John Otteij 

Simon 

Thomas DuUton 



Richard Pytmynster 
John Whitmore 
John Ley 




1228 

Abbot to 1251 

1253 
1311-1318 
1318-1321 
1321- 

-1341 
1341-1346 
1353-1382 
1382-1397 
1397-1399 
1399-1419 
1419-1439 
1439-1441 
1441- 

As early as 

1474 down 

to 1486 

As early as 

1492 to 1498 
As early as 

1509 to 1529 
1529-1539 



Authorities. 



Purchase from Richard de 

Crues. 
Translated to Waverley in 

1251. 
Lease. 

Bishop Stapeldon's Reg. 
Episcopal Registers. 

Do. 
Oliver. 
Episcopal Registers. 

Do 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do 

Do. 
Leases. 



Do. 



THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



FORD. 



Do. 



Episcopal Registers, &c. 






m 



THE 



CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



VI. Ford. 



255. Up to the year 1842 the site of this Abbey, now a 
gentleman's mansion, was in the county of Devon. In that 
year the parish of Thorncombe, in which it is situated, was, 
by authority of Parhament, for the convenience of those 
having the transaction of magisterial and other business, trans- 
ferred to the county of Dorset. There is therefore a necessity 
for including the history of Ford Abbey in this series of 
papers. 

256. The Abbey was founded in 1141, and in point of date 
is the second Cistercian foundation in Devon. But the 
Annals of Waverley say, under date 1135, '^ Fordafundata 
est guinto nonas MaiV* Tliis, however, fixes the date of the 
migration of Richard and twelve monks from Waverley, the 
famous house before spoken of, to Brightley near Okehampton. 

257. This is not the place to attempt to trace the parentage 
and descendants of Richard, stated in the Book of Ford 
Abbey to be the son of Baldwin de Brionne, and although the 
question has had brought upon it all the acumen and learning 
of Mr. Planch^,f it is by no means settled. It is, however, 
clear that a Richard, connected with the great family of 
Redvers, made provision for Cistercian Monks at Brightley, 
and sent to Waverley for men to colonise the new house. 

258. Richard the Monk and his companions had settled at 
Brightley only a few months when their patron died, 25th 
June, 1 137. His death prevented his plans for the permanent 
establishment of the house of Brightley being carried into 
effect, and wanting not only friends, but the bare necessaries 
of life in the barren spot in which the temporaiy buildings 

* Annales de Warerleia, Ann. Monast., vol. ii. p. 225. 

t See Earls of Devon, Collectanea Arch., vol. i. p. 263. The Conqtieror 
and his Cf>mpanu>ns, vol. i. p. 44. On the Lords of the Isle of Wight, Jow'n. 
Arch. Assoc., vol. xi. p. 217. 

2a 



172 



THB CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



FORD ABBEY. 



173 



were placed, and having no hopes of being able to carry out 
the wishes of their would-be benefactor, the thirteen monks, 
after having lost their leader and Abbot, who had broken 
down in the struggle, resolved to abandon Brightley and to 
return to their old home. The five years attempt was a noble 
but a hopeless one, — prae inopia et prae dira sterilitate vic- 
tualiumque penura ibidem amplius morari non potuissent, — 
and with sad memories and disappointed hopes they set their 
faces again towards Waverley. 

259. They had proceeded on their journey as far as Thorn- 
combe when Adelicia, the sister of Richard the Viscount, met 
them. The chronicler quoted by Dugdale gives the very 
words of Adelicia when she saw the monks walking two and 
two with uplifted cross, as five years before they had set out 
from Waverley. " Absit a me, domini et patres sanctissimi, 
opprobrium tam damnabile et ignominiosum periculum, ut 
quod dominus mens et frater Ricardus pio devotionis affectu 
ad Dei honorem nostrumque omnium salutem tam solemp- 
niter quam salubriter inceperat, ego vero soror ejus, et heres 
cui decedendo omnia tradidit in manus, non velim aut valeam 
ad debitum perducere effectum. Ecce manerium meum in 
quo jam consistimus fertile satis et nemorosum ac abundans 
frugibus, quod vobis in excambium pro terra sterili de 
Brightleia cum tota mansione nostra et domicilio imperpe- 
tuum donamus. Manete hie donee alibi in ista possessione vobis 
competentius fit monasterium, nee vobis in hoc deesse pos- 
sumus, sed satis juvabimus ad construendum." The fruitful 
and well- wooded manor which Adelicia offered the monks was 
that of Thomcombe, and the proffered gift induced them 
to change their plans and accept the lands for a new founda- 
tion. 

260. The house called Westford, which accompanied the 
gift of the manor, was taken possession of, and there the 
wanderers lived until the completion of the larger and more 
convenient buildings. It was resolved that their site should 
be Hertbath (Balneum cervorum) and the erection of the 
church was at once commenced. ' 

261. Scarcely had the new arrangements been completed 
when the monks sustained another loss. In September, 1 142, 
Adelicia died, and was buried within the precincts of the 
church, although at this time little progress could have been 
made with it. The remains of Richard the Viscount and 
Richard the Abbot were removed from Brightley, and buried 
before the place of the high altar in the slowly rising church. 
The Abbey was soon known as Ford, taking this name from 



a passage-way over the River Axe, near which it was 
situated. 

262. Tlie first Abbot was succeeded by Robert de Penynton, 
or Penigton, as we find it sometimes spelt, and who, as 
his name occurs in deeds under dates so far apart as 1137 
and 1168, must have ruled the house for many years. It is 
very probable that the conventual buildings were completed 
in his time, and the remains of the two Richards removed 
from Brightley to Ford. 

263. The third Abbot was Baldwin of Exeter. Originally 
a monk at Ford, he, in the course of a short time, became 
Abbot, and about the year 1181 was made Bishop of Wor- 
cester, and not long afler Archbishop of Canterbury, and his 
life in consequence becomes a part of the history of our 
country. 

264. Of the next Abbot, Robert, we know nothing. 
During his time, or in that of his successor, Maurice Somer- 
set was a monk here, and, his writings obtaining him celebrity 
at Oxford, he was made Abbot of Wells. 

265. John, the Confessor of the King of the same name, 
formerly Abbot of Bindon, succeeded Robert, and made Ford 
famous for its learning. He was a great theologian and was 
Abbot from 1191 to 1220. 

266. Another John followed,* and was Abbot until 1236. 
We have from the Feet of Fines some entries in which his 
name is mentioned. 

Hec est finalis concordia fca in Curia dni Reg apud Westm. 
In Octab Purificacois anno regni Reg Henr fit Reg Johis 
vicesimo p'mo Coram Robo de Lexintori Witto de Eborf Ada 
fii Witt % Wiilo de Colewrth Justic % aliis dni Beg fidelib} 
tiic ibi pjsentib} Int Galfridu de la Pomeray petentem p 
Hug de la Hutt positu loco ipius Galfr ad lucrandu ut per- 
dendu T; Johem Abbem de Forde tenetem de trib} Carucatis 
?re cu ptin in Tale vnde placitii fuit in? eos in ead Cur 
Scilicet qd pdcus Galfr remisit T: quietil clamauit de se % 
heredib) suis pdco Abbi 1 successorib} suis T; Ecctie sue de 
Forde totii Jus 1 elamiu quod habuit in tota ^dca ?ra cu 
ptin imppetuu. Et p hac remissione quieta clamancia fine % 
concordia idem Abbas dedit pdco Galfr quiquaginta T; tres 
m^'rcas argenti. — Feet of Fines. Devon. Henry HI. No. 
196. 

Hec est finalis concordia fca in Cur dni Reg apud Exori a 

* But see Annals of Waverley under date 1234. 

2 A 2 



fl 



I 



174 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



die sci Joti Bap? in quindeci dies anno regni Reg Henr fit 
Reg Joli vicesimo scdo Coram Wiito de Eborf Robto de 
Bello Campo Wiito de Sco Edmundo T: Jordano OliS iustic 
itinlantib} \ aliis dni Reg fidelib} tiic ibi psentib} Inr Claricia 
fit Radi petentem T; Johm Abbm de Ford tenente de Dimid 
ferlingo tre cu ptin in Stok Vnde assisa mortis antecesS 
sumonita fuit in? eos in eadem Cur scit qd pdca Claric re- 
cognouit tota Sdcam ?ra cum ptin esse ius ipius Abbis % 
Ecctie sue de Ford Habend % tenend eidem Abbi ^ succ suis 
% Ecctie sue pdce de ^dca Claric T; liedib} suis inppetuQ 
reddendo inde annuatim vnu den ad festO sci Micti p omi 
seruico ad ipam Claric Ol ad bedes suos ptinete Et acquie- 
tando tota pdcam tra cum ptiii us^ Capi tales diios feodi ilP 
de omib} aliis seruic ad eandem ?ra ptinentib}. Et p hac 
recognicone fine 1 cocordia Ide Abbas dedit pdce Claric duas 
Marc argeti. — Ibid. No. 2 1 9. 

Hec est finat concordia fca in Cur dni Reg apud Exofi a 
•lie sci Job Bapt in quindeci dies Anno Regni Reg Henr fit 
tleg Jobis vicesimo scdo Cora Wiito de Eborf Robto de Bello 
Campo Wiito de sco Edmundo T; Jord OliS iustic itifiantibj % 
aliis dni Reg fidelib} tuc ibi psentib3 In? Thoin de Ford T; 
Petroniit vxem ei^ petetes 1 Jobm Abbm de Ford tenente 
de ?cia pte vini^ ferlingi ?re cu ptiri in Stokf. Qua ?cia pte 
pdci Thorn 1 Petronilla clamabant esse ronabile dote ipius 
Petronille q eam contingebat de libo tenemeto qd fuit Radi 
fit Ric quondam viri sui in eadem villa. Et vnde placitu 
fuit in? eos in oad Cur scit qd pdce Thorn 1 Petronilla 
remisrunt T; quie? clamauunt de se eidem Abbi 1 succes- 
sorib} suis 1 Ecctie sue de Ford totQ ius 1 clamiii quod bunt 
in tota pdca rcia pte cu ptiii noie dotis ippetuij. Et p hac 
remissione quieta clamanc fine ^ concordia idem Abbas dedit 
pdcis Thome 1; Petronille Duas Marc Argeti.— Ibid. No. 254. 

Hec est finat concordia fca in Cur dni Reg apud Exofi in 
Octab sci Jobis Bap! Anno Regni Reg Henr fit Reg Johis 
vicesimo scdo Cora Wiito de Eborf Robto de Bello Campo 
Wiito de SCO Edmundo 1 Jordano OliS iustic itifiantib) % aliis 
diii Reg fidelibj tuc ibi Ssentib). In? Symone de Pylesdon 
petente 1 Johm Abbm de Forde tenente de duab} Carucatis ?re 
cu ptin in Leffbrd 1 in Cundebur vii placitii fuit in? eos in 
eadem Cur scit qd pdict^ Symo remisit \ quiel clamauit de se 
1 heredib} suis ipi Abbi 1 successorib} suis 1 Ecctie sue de 
Forde totti ius T; clamiu quod habuit in tota pdca ?ra cu ptin 
inppetuii. Et p hac remissione quieta clamanc fine 1 con- 



FORD ABBEY. 



175 



cordia ide Abbas dedit 9dco Symoni q""tuordeci marc T: 
dimid argeti. Et si pdict^ Symo ut bedes sui dece?o aliq"*s 
Cartas ut aliq"" munimeta Ss^ pdcm Abbm ul succ suos q"'ntu 
ad pdcas duas Carucatas ?re cu ptin in Jdcis villis cont* hue 
fine ^tulerint p' nuUis penit^ habebunf. — Ibid. No. 283. 

267. Roger succeeded, in whose abbacy the church was 
completed, for under date 1239, in the Annals of Waverley, 
we have " Ecclesia de Forda dedicata est a domino Willelmo 
Exoniensi episcopo." John de Warwick followed, then 
Adam, who became Abbot in 1240, and William, who died 
and was buried at Waverley. 

Hec est finat concordia fca In cur drii Reg ap Exon a die 
see T^nit in q^ndec! dies anii Regn Reg Henr fit Reg' Job 
vicesimo octavo. Corl Jobe Abfce de Schyreburn Rog'o de 
Thurkelby Gilbto de Fston T; Robto de Bello campo Justic 
Itifiantib} % aliis drii Reg fidelib} tiic ibi Jsentib} In? A^m 
de Ford quer T; Ric de Laya deforc de secta q"^ Ide Abfcs 
exig ab eodem Rico \iide Idem Abfcs exigebat qd facet ei 
secta de t^b} sept in tres septim ad Hundr suu de Thorneciibe, 
Et vnde plac fiiit In? eos in eadem cur. Scitt qd pdcs Ric 
recogn T; concessit p se T; bedib} suis qd ipi de ce?o faciant bis 
p annu sectam pdcm Hundr simt cu libis homib} suis T: cii 
suo capitat Thedingman T; duob} aliis homib} sciit semel sabto 
pximo p^t Hokeday T: I?um sabto px p^t festii sci Micbis. Ita 
tn qd pdcs Thedigman cii pdcis duobj hoib} ad pdcos duos 
dies m6st""re debet oia plac de Thedinga ipi^ Rici T; bed suoi 
ad pdcm Hundr ptinenc T; si aliq^s ipox q^ Ita seq' debt ad 
pdcos duos dies f Sit in defalf Id Abb S 



»v# • • I*.* 



, - succ SUI omia ipors 

amciafhta Integre habnt T: oia alia amciamta de homTb3 ipi 
Rici T; bed suoj ad eunde Hundr contingec In? pdcm Abbem 
% succ suos % pdcm Ricm % bed suos fideli? dimidiabiit"^ T; 
oia ilia amciafnta taxari debent p pdcm Abbm T: succ ut Baltos 
suos T; p pdcm Ricm T; bedes ui atfnatos suos. Et p?ea Idem 
Ric concessit p se T; bed suis qd si aliq^d plac fSit in eodem 
Hundr p Bre dni Reg ut latro fSit ibi Judicand ipi ut atfnati 
sui sequi debet Hundr ipi^ Abbis de T^bj sept In tres sep? 
vsq^ loquela ilia p Judm eiusdera Hundr plena? fSit t^miata. 
Et p hac rec concessione fine T; cocordia. Idem Abbs refh T; 
q*el clafn de se T; succ suis T; Ecctia sua de Forde pdco Rico 
"t bed suis oia arreragia 1; ofns alias sectas q""s ab code Rico 
exigibat T: oia dampn que dicebat se huisse occasione sub"^cc6is 
pdce secte usq> ad diem quo hec concordia tea fuit — Feet of 
Fines. Henry III. No. 316. 



'11: 



ilj 



176 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 






Hec est finat concordia fca in Cur Dni Reg apud Exon a 
die see Trinitati's In q'ndecim dies anno regni Reg Henr fit 
Reg Jotlis vicessimo octavo coram Johe Abbte de Schryreburn 
Rogo de Thurkelby Gilbto de Preston 1 Robto de Bello Campo 
Justic Itiflantibj 1, allis dni Reg fidelib} tuc ibi ^sentib) In? 
Adam Abbem de Forde querptrem Wifhn MonachQ suO poitum 
loco suo ad Juc""ndu ut pdendu 1; Hug PeSel de Erminton 
deforc de annuo rediditu decem lib? Cere vnde Idem Abbs 
questus fuit qd decem libre eiusdem redditus ei aretro fiierut 
de vno anno. Et vnde placitu fuit in? eos in eadem Cur scitt qd 
pdcs Hug recognouit \ concessit eidem Abbti decem libr Cere 
p annu ; pcipiendas ipi Abbti successorib} suis de Molendino 
de Ermintoii p manii Balti ipius Hug 1 bedum suox de Ermin- 
ton ad festii sci Michis apud Exoii inppetuG. Et p h"^c 
recogn concessione fine T; concordia Idem Abbs remisit 1 
quie! clain de se T; succ suis eidem Hug T; bed suis omia 
arreragia pdci redd ^dcar decem libr Cere vsq^ ad diem quo 
hec concordia ica fiiit. — Ibid. No. 328. 

268. William of Crewkeme was the tenth abbot, and his 
time was famous for the great dispute between him and Bishop 
Bronescombe, the particulars of which are detailed by Oliver, 
and the documents given at length in the appendix to the 
Monasticon. His name occurs in the following legal pro- 
ceedings : — 

Hec est final concordia fca In cur dni Reg* apd Exon In 
Octab see Trinitatis Anno regni Reg Henr fit Reg Jobis 
Tricesimo tercio Cora Rog*o de Thurkelby Gilbto de Preston 
1 Jobe de Cobbeb Justic ItiSant 1 aliis dni Reg fidei tuc 
ibi Ssentibus In? Radm de Trewurtheth petn 1 Adam Abbem 
de Laforde ten de vno ferlingo ?re T; dimid cu ptifi in Opecote. 
Unde plac fuit in? eos in ead Cur Sciit qd pdcs Rads rem 
1 quief clam de se 1 bed suis ^d2o Abbi 1 succ suis 1 Ecctie 
sue de Forde totu Jus 1 clamiu qd buit in pdca ?ra cii ptiii 
imppet. Et p h""c rem quieta clam fine 1 cone Idem Abbas 
dedit pdco Rado duas M'^cas argiiti.— Feet of Fines. 
Henry III. No. 435. 

Hec est finat concordia fca in cur dni Reg apud Westih 
In Octab sci Hillar anno regni Reg Henr fit Reg Jobis q»n- 
quagesimo scdo Coram M""rtino de Litlebir Magro Rof o de 
Seyton 1 Jobe de Cobbeh"*m Justic 1 aliis dni Reg tidehb} tuc 
ibi psentib} Int Magrm Thom de Wymundeh*^m psonara 
Ecctie de Pahambir petn % Wittm Abbem de fforde tenetem 



FORD ABBEY. 177 

de vno fferlingo T; vna acra ?re cum ptifi in Tale, vnde Jurata 
vtrura pdca terra cu ptin sit liba elemosina ptines ad ^dcam 
Ecctiam an laicu feodu ipius Abbis sum fuit in? eos in cade 
cur. ^ Scitt qd pdcs Abbs recogii pdcam ?ram cu ptin esse 
Jus pdce Ecctie T; pdem ferlingu terre cu ptiri ei reddidit in 
eadem cur 1: remisit T; quieteclam de se 1 succ suis T: Ecctia 
sua de fforde pdco Thorn '\ succ suis psonis pdce Ecctie 1 
Ecctie pdce Inppe?-. Et p hac recogfi reddicone remissioe 

?'eta clam fine \ cocordia. Idem Thoin cocessit pdco Abbi 
dcam acram terre cu ptin. Habn T; Tenende eide Abbi 1 
succ suis % Ecctie sue pdce de Sdco Thorn T; succ suis psonis 
pdce Ecctie ippe?. Reddn incJe p ann vnu clauii Gariophili 
ad Pascb p omi suico con§ T; exaccone. Et hec cocordia fca 
fuit ex assensu T; volutate Wal?i Epi Exon % cam concedentis. 
—Ibid. No. 603. 



1 






A.D 1281. 



jf Abbas de Forde sum fiiit ad respond dno Regi de ptito At Exeter, 
quo Waranto clain hre vi§ franc pleg emend assise panis T; Octane of St. 
8vi§ fracte furc in Kentesbery 1: Thornecombe sine licenc Ic. 9.1^^^' j 

Et Abbas p Atorfi suu venit Et quo visum f""nci pleg in ' ' ^ ' 
Kentesbyr die qd nicb inde clafii Et quo ad emend as§ panis 
T: cuiS f'cte % furc in eadem villa. Et quo ad emend as§ 
panis l cvig f^cte furc T: visum i"'nci pleg in Thorncombe 
dicit qd ipse % omnes pdec sui a ?pe quo no exstat memor 
huunt emend asS panis % cvis in Kentesbyr l visum f"^nci 
pleg 1 emend as§ panis % 2vig f""cte In Thomcumbe pet qd 
inquira'^. 

Et Witts de Gyselh'^m qui sequi' Ic Die qd huj^mo 
libtates spali? ptinent ad Coronam dni Regis Et desic nullii 
War inde ostend de drio Rege pe? Judm. 

Dies dat^ est coram dno Rege a die Pasch in unu mensem 
ubicuq^ l;c de aud judico. 



Assize Roll Devon 



M 

1^ 1 Memb: 20d. 
341 



269. Nicholas, who was blessed at Axminster 1st Jan. 1283, 
by Bishop Quivill, followed. William de Fria succeeded, 
and, having been able to be of great use to the Convent, was 
persuaded to resign it for Newenham, where similar services 
were much needed. However he remained there only about 
four years, when he returned to Ford, and resumed his place 
as a simple monk. Dying at Ford, his body was removed to 
the Abbey he had evidently loved so well, for interment. 



II' 



;n 



\ 



l! 



178 



THE CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



p' Abbe et 
Conventn de 
Forda. 



Dated 5 Feb. 
1312-13. 



I 



270. Henry took the place of William de Fria on his re- 
signation, and was Abbot until 1319. The grant of the fair 
at Thomecombe, which was continued down to the year 
1770, I give from the Charter Roll. 

^ Archiepis T; Ic. saltm. Sciatis nos concessisse T; hac 
carta nra confirmasse ditcis not in xpo Abbati T: Conventui 
de Forda qd ipi T; successores sui imppm heant unu mercatii 
singtis septimanis p diem mercurii apud maneriu suii de 
Thorncube in Com Devon, et una feria ibidem singtis annis 
p sex dies duraturam vidett in die martis in septimana Pasche, 
et p quniqj dies sequentes. Nisi rilcatii illud 1, feria ilia sint 
ad nocumentu vicinoa mercato^ T; vicinai feriax. Quare 
volum^ 1; firmit Jcipim^ p nobis 1 heredib} nris qd pdci 
Abbas l Conventus 1 successores sui imppm heant pdca mer- 
catii 1 feriam apud MaSiu suii ^dcm cum omnib) libtatib} % 
libis consuetudinib) ad hujusmodi mercatii 1 feria ptinen- 
tib}. Nisi mcatii illud T: feria ilia sint ad nocumentii vicinorj 
mcatoi'^ nt vicinari feriai sicut Jdcm est Hiis testib} veSa- 
bilib3 prib3 W. Wigorn. W. Exofi Epis Gilbto de Clare 
Comite Glouc 1 Hertford Adomaro de Valencia Oomite 
Pembr Hug le DespenS Wiito le Latimer. Nicho de Seg^'ve 
T: aliis. Dat p manii nram apud WindeS quinto die Febr p fine 
contentii in alia carta inferius.* — Charter Roll 6 Edward II. 
No. 106, mem. 17, section 36. 

^ oinnib} ad qnos Ic 8al?m. Sciatis qd cum p tras nras 
patentes concesserim^ T; licenc dederimus p nobis T; her iiris 
quantu in nobis est dilcis nob in xpo Abbi T; Conventui de 
fford qd ipi decem libratas trai ten '\ redditii de feodo suo 
pprio adquirere possint feendHt tened sibi T; succ suis imppetuii 
Statuto de ?ris 4 ten ad manu mortuam Ic put in tris ^dcis 
plenius continet^ Nos volentes concessione iiram pdcm debito 
eftcui mancipari concessim^ T; lie dedim^ p nob T; her iiris 
quantu in nobis est Witto de Pillaunde 1 Nichs Portebref 
qd ipi vnu me8 ^tiu molendinii Triginta acras ?re tres acras 
p""ti % tres acr more % alneti cum ptiii in Wheteham T; 
Burghstolt et Thome de Langedon qd ipe vnu meg duodecim 
acr rre T; tres acr bosci cum ptin in Thomecobe et Witto de 
Watelegh qd ipe viginti % tres acr rre 1 duas acr alneti cum 
ptin in Watelegh iuxta Wynesham que de pdcis Abbe T: Con- 
ventut '^ que valent p annii in oinibj exitibj iuxta veru va- 

♦ This is No. 26 on the same Roll, being a Confirmation of a Charter of 
King John granting the church of Tomecnmbe, &c., &c. Dated 10 Oct. in 
the tenth year of bis reign. Confirmation dated 5 Feb. (as above). 

t " tenentar " omitted. 



FORD ABBEY. 



179 



lorem eojdem quatuordecim solid 1 quatuor denar sicut p 
inquisicoes p delcm cticum nrm Magrm JotSem Walewayn 
Escae?^nrm cit"" Trentam de mandate iiro fcas 1 in Can- 
cellar nra retomatas comptu est dare possint 1 assignare 
eisde Abbi 1 Conventui hend 1 tenend sibi et succ suis 
imppetuu in pte satisfaccois dece libratarx ?re ten 1 reddituu 
f^dcor^. Et eisde Abbi 1 Conventui qd ipi ^dca me§ Molen- 
dinu tram p"^tum boscum moram 1 Alnetu cum ptiii a 
pfatis Witto Niciio Thoma T: Witto recipe possint 1 tenere 
^!^\\®"^^ ^"^^ P^^^^ imppetuu sicut ^dcm est tenore psenciii 
similiV licenc dedimus spalem Statuto ^dco non obstante. 
Nolentes qd pdci Witts Nichs Thomas 1 Witts vel heredes 
sui aut pfati Abbas T; Conventus seu succ sui rone statuti 
pdci p nos vel her firos inde occonenf molestenf in aliquo 
seu g'^venf. Salvis tamen Capitalib} dnis feodi iUius ?viciis 
Ic. In cui^ Ic. T. R apud Westfn. xxv. die Octobr.— Patent 
RoU 11 Edw. 11. pars 1, m. 21. 

271. William, who patronised Charmouth, was confirmed 
22 Sept 1219. His successor John appears to have under- 
taken the repairs of the buildings of his house, then become 
dilapidated judging from his reply to Bishop Grandisson, 
who asked for a money grant to enable him to comply with 
the large demand of the Court of Rome. John replied that 
his buildings and his church were ruinous, and with great 
humility begged that the Abbey might not be called upon to 
contribute to the subsidy. Still he seems to have acquired 
land for the house, as the following from the Patent Roll 
shows : — 

^ ^ omib3 ad quos '^c sttm. Sciatis qd cum de gra nra p Abbate de 
spall p httJ as nras patentes concesserimusllicenciamdederi- ^orde. 
mus p nobis T; heredib^ iiris q"^ntum in nobis est dilcis nob in 
Xpo Abbati 1 conventui de fforde qd ipi decem libratas tlrax 
tenemento^ 1 reddituum de feodo suo pprio adquirere possint 
hend 1 tenend sibi 1, successorib} suis imppetuu. Statuto de 
tris 1 ten ad manu mortuam non ponend edito non obstante, 
put in littis f/dcis plenius continet"^ nos volentes concessionem 
nram p^dcam debito efFectui mancipari concessimus 1 licenciam 
dedimus p nobis 1 heredib} nris q"-ntum in nobis est Witto 
de Pillaunde 1 Nicho Portebrief qd ipi quinquaginta acras 
tre "l vigmti acras more cum ptin in Watelegh que de pdcis 
Abbate 1; con ventu tenent' T; que valent p annuii in oiiinib} 
exitib} iuxta veram valorem eoidem quindecim solid 1 decem 
denar sicut p inquisicoem p dilcm cticum nrm Ma^m Joliem 

2b 



1 



1 1 



I 



: 1 
IN 



180 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



NH 



Walewayn nup Escaetorem nrm vltra Trentam de mandate 
iiro inde fcam T; in Cancellar nra retornatam est comptum 
dare possint T; assignare eisdem Abbati T; conventui habend 1 
tenend sibi T; successorib) suis imppetuu in ptem satisfaccois 
decern librata^ rras tenn T; reddituu pdcox. Et eisdem Abbati 
T; conventui qd ipi tram T; mora pdca cum ptin a pfatis Wiito 
1, Nicho recipe possint 1, tenere sibi 1, successorib; suis pdcis 
imppetuG sicut pdcm est tenore Ssencium similit licenciam 
deaim^ spalem statute pdco non obstante. Nolentes qd pdci 
Wiito T; ISiclius vel her sui aut pfati Abbas 1 conventus seu 
successores sui rone statuti ^dci p nos vel her iirosindeocconent' 
in aliquo seu g*vent'. Salvis tamen capitalibj dnis feodi illius 
sviciis inde debitis T; consuetis. In cui^ T;c. T. Rf apud Ebo». 
XXX. die Dec. — Patent Roll, 13 Edw. II., m. 24. 

272. John de Chidley succeeded John, 24 June, 1330, and 
seems, although his reputation did not stand high, to have 
had several legal matters upon his hands in connection with 
the property of the Abbey. 
Derofi. Johnes Abbas de fForde p at? suu op. se iiij die vsus 

Ranulphu Blaunmoster T; Alic vxem eius Ricm de Combe T; 
Waltm de Edyngton de plito q'^re cepnt auia ipius Abbis T; 
ea iniuste detinue? cont"' vadiu T; pleg T:c Et ipi no ven Et 
hue? inde die hie ad hunc die ex piiccoe Ic Judm attach qd 
sit hie in Octab sci Michis '^c. — De Banco Roll, Easter 17 
Edw. III. memb. 26d. 

DcTofi. Abbas de fforde p Johem de Crukern att suu op. se iiij die 

vsus Henr de sco Claro vicariu ecctie de Brodewyndesore de 
plito qd reddat ei ronabilem compotQ suii de tempo quo fuit 
receptor denar ipius Abbis Ic Et ipe no ven Et sicut plur 
prec fuit vie qd cap eu Ic Et vie modo mand qd no est 
inuent^ Ic I'o sicut plur prec est vie qd cap eii si Ic Et 
saluo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie a die see Trinital in xv 
dies p Justic \c Et vie sit T:c. — Ibid. memb. 88. 

Deyon. Abbas de fferde p Ricm Be3myn at? suu op se iiij die 9sus 

Johem de Clopton de plito qd redd ei ronabilem conipotu suii 
de tempo quo fuit receptor denar ipius Abbis '^c Et ipe no 
veil Et pc fuit vie qd cap eii si 1c Et vie modo mad qd no 
est inuent^ Ic To sic p'us prec est vie qd cap eii si Ic Et 
saluo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie a die see T'nitatis in xv 
dies p Justic ic Et vie sit Ic. — Ibid. memb. 145. 

Idem Abbas p pdcm at? suii op. se iiij. die 9sus Robfm 



FORD ABBEY. 



181 



Jlmystre 1 Adam Rogge de plito q'^re vi T: armis decem 
boues T; q'^tuor vaccas ipius Abbis pcii decem marcai apud 
Tale inventos cepiit % abduxerunt \ alia enormia ei intuler 
ad g"ue dampnii ipius Abbis T; cont"" pace Ic Et ipi no ven 
Et pc fuit vie qd cap eos si T;c Et vie modo mand qd no siit 
inuenti Ic I'o sic p'us prec est vie qd cap eos si Ic Et saluo 
Ic Ita qd heat corpa eo^ hie ad pfatii ?minii p Justic Ic Et 
vie sit Ic. — Ibid. memb. 145. 

273. Adam was confirmed Michaelmas-day, 1354. Abbot 
John did not undertake the repairs of the church, whatever 
he might have done to . the other buildings, for we find that 
about this time the edifice required rebuilding. The follow- 
ing extracts from the White Book of Tenures are interesting: — 

Octobre Novembr Ian Dengt xxix Cornewaille. 

Edward "Ic. A nos chs vadlet} Robt de Eleford fire Seii de "^drffOTd^^^ 
Corn 1 Deveneg 1; Johan de Skirbeekf gardein de nos feod} ^ ^^ *' 
illeoqs 1 a vn de eux salu). N're ch en dieu Abbe de fforde 
no^ ad moustree p sa peticion a fire conseil grevousement 
compleignant q vous nre dit feeder lui destreigne} de iour en 
autre p' relief a no^ paier T: seute faire a fire Court de 
Bradenessh p^ eteines tres T; tefi} es villes de lyntoii Countes- 
bury 1; loeford en Countee de DeveneS queles il tient a ce qil 
dit en pure 1 ppetuelle aumoigne, et en affermance de son 
estat en cele ptie si ad il moustree devant fire conseil vn fait 
p quel Gueras * de Pilesdofi g*unta T; p sa chartre conferma 
a leglise nre dame de fforde T; as Moignes illeoqs dieu "Svant} 
la tre de lefford T; la tre de Cuntebury eve ses app'^tenances 
ensemblement eve lewe pentre Cuntebury T; lyntoii quele ewe 
il retynt de9s lui p' ?me de sa vie la rev'sion au dit Abbe. 
A tenir en pure 1; ppetuelle Aumoigne quel doun Henri Tracy 
filz Witt Tracy conferma p sa chartre f et auxi vne chartre p 
quele Henr filz au Counte dona a dieu T; nre dame de fford 
1 as Moignes illeoqs dieu svant} la Vre de Cuntebury % 
lyntofi ove touj ses app''tenances. A tenir de lui % de ses 
heirs en pure T; ppetuelle aumoigne quits de toutes maSes 
seculers ?vices 1 demandes en maSe come Henr de Tracy 
g'^unta meisme la ?re as dit} Moignes empriant q no^ lui 
veuilliens s"" ce faire droit p quei p avis de fire conseil vous 
maundons q vous etifie} nre conseil a lond^s quel estat no^ 
avons en la §"^ie des dites ?res. £t face) diligealment enquerre 
p quel svice le dit Gueras qi p*mes enfeoffa le dit Abbe tynt 
les dites tres de Henr de Tracy ou dautre coment T; en quele 



• Written (fo. 64) «' Gerveys." 

2b2 



t Oliver, p. 347. 



■ li 



182 



THE CISTERCUN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



manle, et si le dit Abbe tiegne au?s fres 1 ten} es dites villes 
q ne sont composes en les dit} fait} adonqs quelles Pres ces 
sont T; de qi ces sont tenu} 1 p queux 3vices Et ent 8tifie} hre 
conseil entre cy T; la xv de seint Hillair Jsch avenir. Et 
chargeons vous nre dit feeder q vo^ 8"^8eie} de la destresce 
quele vous faites v*8 le dit Abbe p' les choses devantdites entre 
cy ^ la dite xv. Et ce ne lesse}. Don Ic a Westm le xxix 
iour Doctobr Ian xxix. 

p 1 lev[e]sq} de Wync 1 p bille endossee 

p Skipwith. 

The White Book of Tenures in CornwaU, 25—39 Edw. III., 
fol. 58. 



« » 



Cornewaille. 

Touch' les 

Abbeet 

Ovent 

de fforde. 



Som's. 



At fo. 64 a letter of the Prince, dated at London, 
1 1 July, 30 E. III., that Robert de Eleford has fully certified 
to the Council as to the matters above ordered, and directing 
inquiry to be made " si no^ eous lestat le dit monS Henri de 
Tracy en dit Manoir ou del vn 1 del autre." 

Juyl Ian xxxj. As auditors 

des accomptes de no} Ministres salu}. Coment no^ feismes 
ore tard s"^veer 1; examiner p les sages de iire conseil les 
enquestes p>ses a fire maundement devant Robt de Elford nre 
Sen de Comewaitt T; DeveneS 1 Johan de Shirbeh} Gardein 
de no} feed} illeoqs 1 devant fire dit conseil ret""neer touch 
labbee T; covent de fforde avis estoit a nre dit conseil q p"" 
rien q feust Adonqs trove no^ ne deyvons seute nautre 3vice 
de eux demander p reson de ?res composes en mesmes les 
enquestes si mandasmes p no} auPs tres a no} dit} Sefi 1 
Gardein de feed} qils ne destreignassent les dit} Abbe 1 Coven 
p cause des dites tres centre reson a ce q semble vous mandons 
p avis de nre dit conseil q s"' la compte du dit Johan lui face} 
descharger de la soiiie susdite. Et ceste tre vo^ ent 5ra garr. 
Doii Ic a lond^s en lostiol levesa Dely le xj iour de Juyl Ian 
le xxxj '^c.— Ibid. fol. 76. 

274. John Chylheglys seems to have succeeded Adam. He 
was Abbot in the year*1373. His successor, Waller Burstok, 
was confirmed 16 April, 1378. The proceedings referred to 
in the following extracts occurred in his time. 

jf^Abbas de fforde p Johem Crukerii alt suu op. se iiij*" 
die vsus Adam Hodeforde de piito qd reddat ei quadraginta 
1 duos solid quos ei debet iniuste detinet Ic Et ipe non venit 
Et pc fuit vie qd sum eu Et vie mode mand qd nichil het 



L. 



FORD ABBEY. 



183 



J'o pc est vie qd capiat eii si %c Ita qd heat corpus eius hie 
a die see Trinitatis in xv dies p Justic. — De Banco Roll, Easter 
9 Rich. II. m. 104d. 

(f Abbas de fforde p Johem Crukerii attorfi suu op. se iiij*« 
die vsus Robtum Cornu Chiualer de ptito qd reddat ei quad- 
raginta solid quos ei debet 1 iniuste detinet %c Et ipe non 
venit Et sicut plur fuit distr p cataUa ad valenc duoi solid 
Et in p Johem Hunt 1 Henr Hift J'o ipi in mia Et sicut 
plur distr qd sit hie a die see Trinitatis in xv dies p Justic.— 
Ibid. m. 151. 

^ jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Crukerii at! suu op. se iiij*" die 
vsus Thoma Kernere 1 Elena vxem eius % Wiltm fit eorid 
Thome 1: Elene de ptito quare cu de coi consilio regni Regis 
Angt puisu sit qd non liceat alicui vastu vendicoem sen des- 
truccoem face de tris domib} boscis seu gardinis sibi dimissis 
ad ?minu vite vel anno^ iidem Thomas Elena 1 Witto de ?ris 
domib} boscis % gardinis in Thorncombe que Johes de ffar- 
yngdoii nup Abbas de fforde pdecssor pdci nunc Abbis eis 
dimisit ac vita ipoa Thome Elene 1 Wiii fecerunt vastii ven- 
dicoem T; destruccoem ad exher ecctie ipius nunc Abbis be 
Marie de fforde 1 cent"' forma puisionis pdce 1c Et ipi non 
ven Et pc fuit vie qd dislr qd eos Et vie mode mand qd 
bre adeo tarde Ic J'o sicut prius distr qd sint hie a die see 
Trinitatis in xv dies p Justic ad que die vie non mi§ bre J'o 
sicut plur distr qd sint hie a die sci Michis in xv dies. — Ibid, 
m. 228. 

^ Jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Crukern at? suu op. se iiij*** 
die vsus Thoma Stremyngf vicar ecctie de Thorncombe de 
ptito quare cu idem Abbas dfis MaSii de Thomecombe existat 
"t here debeat ipeq^ l omes pdecessores sui diii Maflii pdci a 
tempore quo non exstat memoria ibide here consueuer quand 
cur de hoib} T; tenentib} suis MaSii pdci in quoda loco infra 
idem MaSiu p cur pdca de trib} septimanis in tres septias 
antiquit vsitat pdcus Thomas Nichm Bolour balliuu ipius 
Abbisad Cur pdcm apud Thornecombe in loco pdco tenend} 
p pfatu Abfeem deputaf quomin^ idem Nichus Cur illam ibidem 
tenere potuit vi % armis impediuit p quod idem Abbas pficuu 
quod de Cur pdca si ibidem tenta fuisset pcepisse debuisset 
amisit T: alia enormia Ic ad dampnu ipius Abbis quadraginta 
libra^ 1 cent"' pace Reg T; Et ipe non veii Et sicut prius 
pceptii fuit vie qd capet eii 1 Et vie mode mand qd non est 
inuentus J'o sicut plur pc est vie qd capiat eii si le Ita qd 



Devofi. 



Devon. 



If 



Devon, 
(m. 391.) 



if 



184 



CISTEBCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Devofi. 



Devoil. 



DeTofi. 



DCTOfl. 



heat corpus eius hie a die see Trinitatis in vx dies d Jnstic.— 
Ibid. m. 391. 

275. Nicholas was the next Abbot. His name occurs as 
early as 1388, Oliver says, but without giving his authority; 
but in one of the following entries from tlie De Banco Roll 
we have an Abbot Walter, in Hilary Term, 2 Hen. IV. 

jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Sparowe att suQ op se iiij*** die 
vsus Laurenciu Archere de ptito quare vi T; armis arbores '\ 
subboscum ipius Abbis apud Satteburgh nup crescentes suc- 
cidit T; in sepali piscaria sua ifem piscatus fuit T; piscem inde 
ac arbores T; subboscum pdcos ad valenciam viginti libra^ 
cepit T; asportauit T; alia enormia T;c. ad g^'ue dampnu Ic. et 
cont"^ pace Regf Ic. Et ipe non ven Et prec fuit vie qd distr 
eu Et vie modo mand qd nichil het T^c p quod potest distri 
J'o prec est vie qd capiat eu si Ic Et salus Ic Ita qd heat 
corpus eius hie a die Pasche in tres septimanas 1c. — De Banco 
Roll, 19 Ric. XL m. 166. 

jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Sparowe a?t suu op se iiij*® die 
vsus Georgiu Crukern T; Galfrm Smyth de ptito quare vi '^ 
armis clausa ipius Abbis apud Bromhille '\ Wythewylle frege- 
runt % arbores % subboscum sues ad valenciam centii solidor^ 
ibm nup crescentes succider T; asportauer T; blada ^ hbam 
sua ad valenciam decem marca& ibm nup crescentia cu qui- 
busdam auiis depasti fuerunt conculcauer T; consumpS T: alia 
enormia Ic ad g""ue dampnu 1c et cont"' pace Regf 1c Et ipi 
non ven Et ^c fuit vie qd attachet eos Et vie modo mand qd 
nichil hent Ic. J*o prec est vie qd capiat eos si Ic. Et saluo 
Ic. Ita qd heat corpora eoi hie a die Pasche in tres septi- 
manas Ic. — Ibid. m. 167. 

jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Sparowe a?t suu op se iiij*° 
die vsus Georgiu Knyf 1 Thoma Crukerii cticum de ptito 
quare vi 1 armis in sepali piscaria ipius Abbis apud Shyterok 
piscati fuerunt 1 piscem inde ad valenciam decem marca^ 
ceper 1 asportauer 1 alia enormia 1c ad gu""e dampnu 1c et 
cout"" pace Regf 1c. Et ipi non veii. Et pc fuit vie qd attachet 
eos. Et vie modo mand qd nichil hent 1c. J'o prec est vie qd 
capiat eos si 1c. Et saluo 1c. Ita qd heat corpora eor^ hie a 
die Pasche in tres septimanas 1c. — Ibid. m. 167. 

jf Abbas de fforde 1 fraP Henr Kernere comonacus 
eiusdem Abbis p Johem Sparowe attorn suu op se iiij*® die 



FORD ABBEY. 



185 



vsus Johem Crawelegh de ptito qd reddat eis quadraginta 1 
sex solidos 1 octo denar quos ei debet 1 iniuste detinet 1c. 
Et ipe non ven Et sicut plur fuit distr p catalla ad Valencia 
duodecim denar Et ilt p Juone Donne 1 Luca Moune I'o 
ipi in m'la Et sicut plur prec est vie qd distr eu p omes Sras 
1c Et qd de exi? 1c Et qd heat corpus eius hie a die 
Pasche in tres septimanas p Justic 1c. — Ibid. m. 167 d. 

Jf Abbas de fforde p Johem Spwe at? suu op se iiij*** die 
vsus Johem atte Wille de ptito quare vi 1 armis bona 1 
catalla ipius Abbis ad Valencia quadraginta libra* apud fforde 
inuent cepit 1 asportauit 1 Waltum Whyte natiuu 1 suientem 
suu in suico suo ibid existent cepit 1 abduxit p quod idem 
Abbas suiciu natiui 1 Suientis sui pdci p magnii tempus 
amisit 1 alia enormia 1c 1 cont"^ pacem Regis 1c. Et ipe non 
venit Et pc fuit vie qd attach eu Et vie modo mand qd nichil 
het I'o pc est vie qd capiat eii si 1c. Ita qd heat corpus 
eius hie a die Pasche in tres septias p Justic. — Ibid. m. 186. 

jf Wal?us Abbas de fforde Robtus Borde Bocher Witts 
atte Horsmylle Johes Baker 1 Stephus Eueray attach fuerunt 
ad respondend Edwardo Osborne vicario ecctie de Thorne- 
combe de ptito quare vi 1 armis clausum ipius Edwardi apud 
Thorn ecombe fregerunt 1 quatuor vacc^as 1 sexaginta porcos 
sues ibidem inuentos cum quibusdam canib) fugauerunt canes 
illos ad mordend vaccas 1 porcos pdcos in tantum incitando 
qd p fugacoem illam 1 morsus canQ pdcoi due vacce 1 
quadraginta porci pcii decem marcax de vaccis 1 porcis pdcis 
inSierunt 1 vacce 1 porci residui multiplici? detiorati fuerunt 
ac vaccas 1 porcos residues ibidem ceperunt 1 imparcauerunt 
1 eos ibidem sic imparcatos quousq^ idem Edwardus finem p 
quadraginta solidos p delibacoe vaccari 1 porcorx residuorx 
pdco^ henda cum pfatis Abbe Robto Wifto Johe 1 Stepho 
fecisset./ detinuerunt Et alia enormia ei intulerunt ad g"'ue 
dampnu ipius Edwardi Et cent"" pacem dni Rf nup Regis 
Angt scdi post conquestum 1c Et vnde idem Edwardus p 
Johem Qoold attorii suu querit' qd pdci Abbas Robtus Witts 
Johes 1 Stephus die lune px post festu sci Michis Anno 
regni dni Rf nup Regis Angt tciodecimo vi 1 armis scitt 
gladiis arcub) 1 sagittis clausum ipius Edwardi apud Thome- 
combe fregerunt 1 quatuor vaccas 1 sexaginta porcos sues 
ibidem inuentos cum quibusdam canib} fugauerunt canes 
illos ad mordend vaccas 1 porcos pdcos in tantum incitando 
qd p fugacoem illam 1 morsus canu pdcox due vacce 1 
quadraginta porci pcii 1c de vaccis 1 porcis pdcis intierunt 



m. 167 d. 



Devon, 
m. 186. 



Devon. 



I 



186 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



Devofl. 



Devoii. 



Devon. 



M 



% vacce 1 porci residui multipliciP deftorati fuerunt ac vaccas 
T; porcos residues ibidem ceperunt T; impareauerunt % eos 
ibidem^ sic imparcatos quousq^ idem Edwardus finem Ic p 
delibacoe vacca^ l porco^ residuox pdcorx henda cum 
dfatis Abbe Kobto Wilto Johe 1 Steptfo fecissetv detinuerunt 
Et alia enormia Ic ad g'^ue dampnu Ic Et con*^ pacem 
T;c Vnde die qd detioratus est l dampnu het ad valenciam 
quadraeinta library Et inde pduc sectam Ic. 

Et ^dci Abbas Robtus Witts Johes '\ Stephus p Thomam 
Martyn attorn suii ven Et defend vim 1 iniur quando Ic Et 
die qd ipi in nullo sunt culpabiles de t""nsgr pdca put pdcs 
Edwardus supius vsus eos querif Et de hoc pon se sup priam 
Et Jdcus Edwardus similit I'o pc est vie qd venire fac hie a 
die Pasche in xv dies xij Ic p quos le Et qui nee Ic ad 
recogn Ic Quia tam Ic— Ibid. 2 Hen. IV., Hilary, m. 138d. 

As I have said, it will be noticed that here we have Walter 
mentioned as Abbot. The explanation may be that the pro- 
ceedings were commenced in Walter Burstok's time, and his 
name continued on the pleadings after his death. 

jf Abbas de fforde p attorn suu op se iiij*° die 9sus Thomam 
Splent de ptito qd reddat ei ronabilem compotum suu de 
tempo quo fuit balliuus suus in Westforde T; receptor denariorx 
ijius Abbis Et ipi non vefi Et prec fuit vie qd sum eum Ic 
Et vie mode mand qd nichil het Ic I*o prec est vie qd capiat 
eum si T;c Et saluo Ic Ita qd heat corpus eius hie a die Pasche 
in vnu Mensem Ic. — Ibid. m. 459. 

De Banco Roll ; Trin. 2 Henry IV. 
jf Abbas de flPorde d attorn suu op se iiij^** die vsus Thomam 
Splent de ptito qd ei reddat ei ronabilem compotu suu de 
tempore quo fuit ballivus suis in Westforde 1; receptor denario^ 
ipius Abbis Et ipe non veil Et sicut prius prec ftiit vie qd 
capet eum T:c Et vie mode non misit bre Ic I'o sicut plur 
capitat""qd sit hie in Octab sci Michis "^c.— Ibid. Trin. 2 Hen. 
IV., m. 2958. 

(f Abbas de fforde p attorn suu op se iiij*** die 9su8 Jofiem 
Smyth de Tale T: Johem Seger de Taletoii de ptito quare vi % 
armis clausa ipius Abbis apud Tale fregerunt T; libam waiTenna 
sua ibm intraverunt T; in ea sine licencia T; voluntate sua 
fugaverunt T; in sepali piscaria sua ibm piscati ftierunt T; 
piscem inde ad valenc centu solidox ac lepores euniclos phasi- 
anos 1 pdices de warrenna pdca ceperunt 1 asportaverunt et 
alia enormia Ic et cont"' pacem Ic Et ipi non ven Et prec fuit 



FOBD ABBEY, 



18t 



vie qd attach eos Ic Et vie mand qd nichil tient T:c I'o capianf 
^d sint hie in Oetabis sci Michis %c. — Ibid., Trinity, 8 Hen. 
v., m. 409. 



2 



276. Of the succeeding abbots until the last we know very 
little. John Bokelandwas confirmed 10 June, 1419. Richard 
succeeded him. Robert occurs in 1448. 

(f Abbas de fforde p attorn suu op se iiij*" die vsus Gilbtum Devofi. 
Pyper alias dcm Gilbtum Boteswayn de Elleworth in Coin 
Dorg husbondman de ptito t"^nsgr Et ipe non ven Et prec fiiit 
vie qd attactiet eii Ic Et vie retorn qd ipi nichil het l;c p quod 
'^c To prec est vie qd capiat eu si T;c Et salvo %c Ita qd heat 
corpus eius coram dno Rege a die sci Hillar in xv dies vbicuq) 
T;c Et vnde in xv sci Martini %c. — Coram Rege Roll, Mich. 
1 Hen. VI., m. 35. 

277. The next entry in the De Banco Roll relating to Ford 
gives the name of Walter, and thus enables me to add a new 
abbot to the list. This is on the Roll for Michaelmas term, 
38 Hen. VI. 

If Walrus Abbas de flForda p attorn suu op se iiij*° die 9sus Devon. 
Wal?um Colebroke de parochia de Columpton in Com pdco 
Gentilman de plito quare cum idem Abbas in feodo suo apud 
Oolbroke p con§ T: suiciis sibi debitis p Wal?um Holway 
5uien? suu quedam auia capi fecisset T; idem Wal?us Holway 
aula ilia scdm legem T; con§ regni Regis Angt imparcare 
voluisset pdcus Wal?us Colbroke aSia ^dca vi T; armis res- 
cussit Et alia enormia %c ad g^'ue dampnii T;c Et cent"" 
pacem Regis Ic. Et ipe non veii. Et prec fuit vie sicut 
prius qd distr eum Ic. Et vie mode mand qd dis?r est p 
catalla ad valenc duodecim denar. Et manuc p Edm Mate 
l Ricm Ware. I'o ipi in mia. Et sicut plur dis?r qd sit hie 
in Oetabis sci Hillar Ad que diem vie non mi§ bre I'o sicut 
plur distr qd sit hie a die Pasche in vx dies Ic. — De Banco 
Roll Mich. 38 Hen. VI. m. 52d. 

278. My last extract, too, refers to a claim made in the 
time of Walter, the newly found Abbot. 

Wal?us Abbas de fforde p attorii suu op se iiij**' die 9sus Devon. 
Robtum Cammeit de ffytelford in Com Dorg Gentilman alias 
dcm Robtum Cammett de Cammeft in Coin DorS Geflosum 
de ptito qd reddat ei decern libras quas ei debet T; iniuste 

2c 



I 



188 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



detinet Ic. Et ife non vefi. Et prec fuit vie sicut prius qd 
capet eum '^c. Et vie modo mand qd non est inuent Ic. 
I*o sicut plur capiat qd sit hie in Octabis sci Hillar Ic. — 
Ibid. 253. 

279. Then comes Elias, in 1462, and William White, who 
was apparently Abbot for upwards of thirty years, from at 
least as early as 1490 to 1521. 

280. The last Abbot, Thomas Charde, otherwise Tybbes, 
has left something more than a name. He was one of the 
most distinguished men of whom the Abbey could boast. He 
was not only an eminent scholar and divine, but the build- 
ings at Ford show him to have been an artist of no mean 
capabilities. Dr. Oliver has given a memoir, and Dr. J. H. 
Pring has dealt with the history of his life in fuller detail.* 
He succeeded in 1521. An account of his various prefer- 
ments, some probably of great value, and given him to 
suppoi-t to some extent his dignity as Suffragan Bishop to 
his Diocesan, Oldham, will be found in the memoirs to which 
I have referred. He was evidently fond of building, and 
remodelled the domestic buildings at Ford on a scale of great 
magnificence. The beautiful tower, the north walk of the 
cloister, all that now exists, and the new refectory, with his 
initials, mitre, and abbot's cap, were as much admired by 
his contemporaries as by succeeding generations. He sur- 
rendered his house 8th March, 1539, at which time there was 
the full number of thirteen monks. He did not survive the 
fall long, dying full of years and honours early in 1544. 

281. Thus Ford shared the fate of its sister houses. They 
were all surrendered in 1538-9, but in all probability no 
buildings were so perfect, and none were abandoned with 
greater grief than this important foundation. Its revenues 
amountecl to £374 10s. G^d., according to Dugdale, and its 
possessions, besides those in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the Abbey, extended into the adjoining counties of Somerset 
and Dorset, and as far as Lynton and Countisbury on the north 
coast. 

282. The history of the Abbey after the dissolution is well 
known, as it became the home of many distinguished families. 
It and the adjoining land was first leased to Richard Pollard for 
a term of twenty-one years, at an annual rental of £49 6s. 6d., 
but tlie following year, 23rd June, 1540, the lessee obtained 
from the king a conveyance in fee. Sir John Pollard suc- 
ceeded his father, and sold Ford Abbey to his cousin. Sir 
Amias Poulett, of whom William Rosewell, Queen Elizabeth's 

• A Memoir qf Thama» Chard, D.D., by James Horly Pring, M.D., 1864. 



FORD ABBEY. 



189 



Solicitor- General, bought it; and his son. Sir Henry Rosewell, 
sold it to Edmund Prideaux, who, employing Inigo Jones, 
proceeded to convert the domestic buildings of the convent 
into a mansion, at what must have been a great expenditure. 
In the Prideaux, Gwyn, and Fraunceis families the Abbey 
continued down to 1847, when on the death of John Fraunceis 
Gwyn it was sold to G. F. W. Miles, Esq., by whom however 
it was not long retained, the present owner, Herbert Evans, 
Esq., becoming its possessor by purchase. 

283. No Cistercian building in England, perhaps none in 
the world, remains in so perfect a state as that of Ford. The 
site is on the south of the Axe river, the formation of the 
ground compelling tlie monks to take that bank of the river 
instead of, as they preferred, the north. The stream flawing 
into the river rises in the ground south of the Abbey, and the 
fish ponds which were constructed in its course still remain, 
although somewhat altered in shape. The principal entrance 
is now from the east, and the visitor approaching the Abbey 
walks over the foundations of the antient church, and treads 
under foot the dust of stately ecclesiastics and noble founders. 

284. Not a vestige remains of the monastic church. The 
entrance road crosses the north aisle, and the south side of 
the cloister. This was not consecrated until 1239, but it 
must not be supposed that there was no building for divine 
serx'ice until that time. The whole of the buildings were in 
all probability laid out from the beginning, and the work 
completed as the bounty of the faithfol allowed. It was the 
finished church no doubt that was consecrated nearly a century 
aft^r the monks left Brightley. Within its walls the remains 
of Richard the Viscount, Richard the Abbot, Adelicia (1142), 
Hawisia de Courtenay (1209), Reginald or William de 
Courtenay (1192-94), Robert de Coui^enay (1242), and John 
de Courtenay (1273), found resting places. 

285. Turning to the right we shall enter a building fitted 
up as a chapel, and usually considered to be the church of the 
Abbey. This is a chamber of the greatest interest, it being 
in fact no other than the chapter house of the monks. It is 
of twelfth-century work, transitional Norman, with pointed 
vault of two bays. In the extensive alterations of the Abbey 
made by Edmund Prideaux, this was converted into the 
domestic chapel of the mansion, and here Cromwell's Attorney- 
General was buried in 1659. On the walls are various 
memorial tablets. 

286. Over the chapter-house would be originally the library. 
This IS now completely altered into a spacious modern room. 

2c2 



i 



190 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DETON. 



Through the library the monks passed from their dormitory 
to the church, the staircase leading down to it being probably 
in the north transept. 

287. Still passing northward we enter a vaulted chamber 
originally nearly 170 feet long, and divided by a central row 
of eleven columns, all of which with the vaulting are perfect. 
This building is of rather later date than the chapter-house, 
and the work is of an elegant and delicate description. Over 
it is the dormitory of tlie monks, almost perfect, although now 
divided up to furnish sleeping apartments for the servants of 
the mansion. 

288. Retracing our steps we come to the south front of the 
house, and find ourselves in the north walk of the cloister. 
This is eighty-two feet in length. All but this side is destroyed, 
and the beautiful Perpendicular work is that of Charde the 
last Abbot, whose memorj' is so intimately interwoven with 
Ford. He did not scruple here to mingle his initials, T. C., 
and his episcopal and abbatial insignia, with the arms of the 
Abbey and the King, on the many shields which decorate the 
spaces between the buttresses and between and over the 
tracery. Within the existing portion of the cloister and on 
the north may be traced the ancient refectory (of the later we 
shall speak presently), although it is blocked up with modern 
partitions. The kitchen of the monaster}- remains the kitchen 
of the mansion. 

289. We now come to the domus conversorum, but a small 
portion only of it remains. In its original state it extended 
northward from the church, probably as far as the diverted 
stream, which formed the common sewer of the house, and 
was therefore at least two huntlred feet long, the breadth 
being twenty-six feet. The whole of this however was not 
occupied by tlie convent, as trace? of divisions can be made 
out. Over were the dormitories of the lay bretliren. 

290. We now enter tlie hall, which is really the eastern end 
of the new refectory of Abbot Charde. Jn its original state 
this fine room was one hundred and fifteen feet long. The 
western part was divided and altered by Inigo Jones to form 
the state apartments, and, shorn as it is now of its fair propor- 
tions, it still remains a very fine apartment 

291. The bam still remains, and between it and the western 
end of Charde's refectory mav be found remains, probably of 
the gatehouse; for it was on this side, not on the east, that the 
entrance formerly was. 

292. The alterations made by Inigo Jones, while to a great 
extent destroying many of the ancient features and disfiguring 



FORD ABBEY. 



191 



the fine work of Charde, and mutilating its proportions, 
tended to make the abbey a convenient and commodious 
residence. The dining and drawing rooms are good apart- 
ments with elaborate ceilings, and the staircase and saloon 
are finely designed. But still, in spite of the interference 
with his architecture and the incongruities of Inigo Jones's 
additions, Charde's work remains pre-eminently beautiful, 
and renders Ford Abbey perhaps the most interesting building 
architecturally, as it is archaeologically, in the west country. 

293. The property of the Abbey was not of great extent, 
although at the dissolution its annual value was second only 
to that of Buckfast. It was, as I have said, situated in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Abbey, in the north of the 
county, at Lynton and Countisbury, and in Somerset and 
Dorset Besides Adelicia, the later Courtenays endowed Ford 
with some of their wealth and the Pomeroys also were its 
benefactors. 

294. The arms of the Abbey were a stag's head caboshed, 
and the shields containing them may be found in various parts 
of the buildings of Charde. 

295. The seals of the Abbey so far known are but two. 
One described by Oliver is oval, " divided into three com- 
partments. In the upper part, between two pointed windows, 
a bell appears suspended in a steeple. In the canopy beneath, 
is the Blessed Virgin and Divine Infant. On the dexter side 
is the Courtenav shield. Or, three torteaux, with a label of 
three points. On the sinister is the shield of Beaumont, 
Barry of six vairy and gules. Below is an Abbot erect, 
holding his crozier in his right hand and a book in his left, 
and three persons on their knees." The legend is, 

Sb* (^Tommune JHonasterii ISeate fSiam tt jForlia. 

Another seal, and one not hitherto described, is said to 
represent the Abbot between two shields, on the dexter that 
of the Courtenays, and on the sinister a lion rampant A 
legend surrounds tlie device. This seal is appended to a grant 
from William Toterigge and Mabilla his wife to Edward 
Blakforde, John Forde Capellanus, and others, of tenements 
in Sperhay. This deed was for sale by a firm of London 
booksellers in 1875, but I have not been able to trace its 
present owner. 

296. With this brief account of Ford I bring to a close 
this series of papers on the Cistercian Houses of Devon, and 
trust that I have been enabled to add a little to their some- 
what meagre history. 



•m 



192 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



APPENDIX. 

List op the Abbots of Ford. 



Name. 



Richard . 

Robert de Penynton 

Baldwin . 

Robert . 

John 

John 

Roger . 

John de Warwick 

Adam . 

William 

William of Crukem 

Nicholas 

William de Fria 

Henry . 

William . 

John . , 

John de Chidley 

Adam . 

John Chylheglys 

Walter Burstok 

Nicholas 

Walter? 

John Bokeland 

Richard . 

Robert . 

Walter . 

Elias 

William White 

Thomas Charde 






Date. 



1136 

1137-1168? 
-1181 ? 

1191-1120 
Until 1236 

In 1236 
Died in 1246 

Died 1262 
1262 

From 1283 
Resigned 1297 
In 1312 
From 1319 

* . 
From 1330 
From 1354 
In 1373 
From 1378 
In 1388 

From 1419 

In 1448 * 
In 1460 
In 1462 
In 1490 
1521-1539 



Authorities. 



Harleian MSS. 

Do. 
Various. 
Harleian MSS. 
Leland and Various. 
Feet of Fines and Docu- 
ments. 
Documents. 
Harleian MSS. 

Do. Oliver. 

01iver,Dugdale,and various. 
Various. 

Episcopal Register. 
Various. 
Oliver, 
Episcopal Registers. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

See par. 275. 

Episcopal Registers. 

Oliver. 

Oliver. 

De Banco Roll. 

Oliver. 

Various. 

Various. 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 

Mr. Davidson has very kindly furnished me with a trans- 
cript from the Cartulary of Glastonbury, in the Bodleian 
Library, relating to Newenham Abbey, which I am very glad 
to be able to add here. 

The following seems to have been the substance of the 
dispute. 

The manor and hundred of Axminster, which belonged at 
the Conquest to the King, were, by a donation in the year 
1246, granted by Reginald de Mohun to the Abbey of 
Newenham. The grant of the hundred carried with it the 
right to have suit (secta) and service {servitium) from the 
owners of the several tithings in the hundred, at the hundred 
court, when the sheriff made his visitation or tourn. One of 
the tithings in Axminster hundred was Upljrme, of which 
manor the Abbot of Glastonbury was lord ; and it is to be 
presumed that from and after. 1246 the seneschal of the 
Abbot of Glastonbury, on each occasion of a sheriffs tourn 
being held at Axminster, presented himself and did suit 
(secta) to the Abbot of Newenham for the tithing of Uplyme. 
This " doing suit of court" had been and might be commuted 
to a payment of ten shillings a year for the sheriff's tourn, and 
a yearly rent of 6s. 8c?. for liorderisgeld, " hordarii geldum," 
or treasurer's tax, which seems to have been a peculiar 
impost payable to a religious house when lords of a manor. 
It happened, however, that upon the death of an Abbot of 
Glastonbury, the fruits of the Abbey possessions became 
vested in the crown during the vacancy, and the seneschal 
neglected either to do suit of court, or to pay either the fee 
due at the hundred court to the lord of the manor, or the 
treasurer's tax, due to the Abbot of Newenham. Thereupon 
it was alleged, a number of persons, twelve of whom are 
named, went over from Newenham and its neighbourhood to 
Uplyme, entered an enclosed field belonging to the Abbot of 
Glastonbury, and there burnt some growing rushes and 
other standing crops. At the same time one Robert Tudde, 
bailiff of Axminster, seised and carried off 37 beasts belong- 
ing to the Abbot, by way of distress for non-payment of the 
fees due at the last sheriff's tourn. This led to a process of law 
being instituted. A writ was issued to the sheriff to inquire 
into the truth of the alleged enormities, and to attach the 
wrong-doers. Tlie return made by the jurors on the 25th of 
January, 1275, established the truth of the charges, and on 
the 5th of February following a writ was issued by the 
Crown, dated at Reading, which was in the nature of a 



.*' 



vj' 



ij i, 

■f" 



194 



THE CISTERCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



decree or judgment. It took the form of commanding the 
bhenff of Devon to take bail for the appearance of the 
followmg persons— John, Abbot of Newenham, Brother 
Henry de la Boneie, Luke le Messer, William Kussel, 
Wilham Todde, Richard de Cleyhulle, Nicholas Pin, and 
-Nicholas Dare, to shew cause why they, together with 
Kichard le Berker, Richard the son of Amiable of Shapwick 
wMr Egelcumbe, John the son of Richard Care, and 
William Salomon, and others, committed the acts above 
mentioned ; also to shew cause why they did not appear on 
the morrow of the Purification of the Virgin (2nd February) 
as summoned by their sureties. The names of the sureties, 
are then given. 



For the Abbot 

For the Friar Henry of Bouere 

For Luke le Messer 

For William 

For Robert Tudde 

For Nicholas de Cleihulle 

For Nicholas Pin 

For Nicholas Dare 



Robert Squirel. 
Reginald Fayth. 
Adam Scurel. 
Thomas Fait. 
Reginald Gladewine. 
William Velfais. 
Reginald Copiner. 
William Blonoch. 
Hugh Douile. 
Thomas Bal. 
Richard le Pottere. 
Nicholas Pin. 
Richard Humas. 
Walter Grey. 
Thomas Grug§. 
Thomas Tannur. 

The writ goes on to direct the sheriff to take bail for Richard 
le Berker, and the other delinquents named, to appear and 
shew cause together with the eight defendants for whom bail 
had been taken before. 

The narrative of the law-suit is here interrupted in order to 
introduce an agreement, made in October, 1275, between the 
Abbots of Glastonbury and Newenham, with regard to the 
boundaries of some contiguous lands, whereby in considera- 
tion of thirty marks paid by the Abbot of Newenham to the 
Abbot of Glastonbury, the dispute was settled, and all leeal 
proceedings stayed. ^ 

We then find an entry of a deed of release and quit-claim 
on the part of the Abbot of Newenham to the Abbot of 
Glastonbury of the hundred suit and sheriff's toum due to 
the former m respect of Uplyme, in consideration of forty 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



195 



marks paid by the latter to the former. This last mentioned 
deed is to be found in the register of Newenham, and has 
been already observed upon.* 

This is a transcript of the original — 

MSS. Bodl: Wood i. 212_b. 

jf Processus placiti inter dmn regem et abbatem de Newen- 
ham pro tras in manerio de vplim abbis Glastonie. 

Breve originale. 

Rex vicecomiti Devonie salutem quia accepim^ quod qui- 
dam malefactores T; pacis nre perturbatores nuper uenerunt 
ad quendam seperalem pasturam in vplim que pertinot ad 
abathiam Glastonie in manu nra existente racione vacionis 
cuiusdam 1; de qua vltimus abbas eiusdem abbathie obiit 
seisiau et jaunS T; alia in eadem pastura crescentia corabus- 
serunt T; alia enormia ibidem perpetrauerunt ad graue 
dampnu ipius abbathie in nostri contempt^ manifestum 1; 
contra pacem nram tibi pcipimus quod per sacramentum 
proborum T; legaliu hoiin de balliua tua per quod rei ueritas 
melius sciri poterit diligenter inquiras qui predicta transgr' 
fecerunt T; omnes illos quos per inquisicionem illam inde 
culpabiles inueneris attachies ita quod heas corpora eorum 
cora nobis in crastino PurificacoTs beate Marie vbicumq^ 
tunc fuerimus in anglia ad respondend nobis de transgressioe 
pdicta et habeas ibi hoc breue. Teste me ipo apud Marle- 
berghe T:c. 

lb. 212 b. 

Inquisicio capta apd?^ exoniam per ^dic? bre. Friday, 25 Jan. 

Inquisicio capta apud Exoniam die veneris in festo con- 1275. 
uersionis sancti Pauli anno regni Regis Edwardi tercio qui 
malefactores T; pacis Domini Regis perturbatores nuper 
uenerunt in quandam seperalem pasturam in vplim que 
pertinet ad abbathiam Glastonie et janta et alia in eadem 
pastura crescentia combuscerunt T; alia enormia ibidem per- 
petrauerunt in pjudiciu Domini Regis ad dampniim ipius 
abbie manifestum T, contra pacem domini regis per sacrariitum 
Johannis de Hitone, Johannis fit Galfrid, Rog' de Clauile, 
Hugonis de Raleigh, Willi de la uerge, Willi Vinortheheie 
Willi de Cranesweye, Henrici de Hayuile, Philippi de Combe, 
Willi de esse, Roberti Russel, Roberto Pur, Waltero Wering, 
Henrico de Wicrofte, Henrico de Hale, Ricardo de Boclande, 
Roberto Beuener, Nicholai de la Forde, Jordano de la 
Roche, Jordani de Harecumbe et Walteri de Fraunceis Qui 
dicunt super sacramentum suum quod Henricus de la bouecte 

• Davidson, HUt. of Newenham Abbey, pp. 24, 25. 

2d 



196 



THE CISTEKCIAN HOUSES OF DEVON. 



,.•1 

.» r 

1 

I 



■ ^ 

» 



de Niwenham frater Ricardus de la Bekei^, Lucas le messer 
de Nywenham, Willm Russel de la bate, Robertus Todde 
Ric^ filius amiable de schapewik, Johannes de Egelcumbe, 
Johannes filius Ricai-di Care de Egelcumbe, Henr^ filius 
Dauid de Egelcumbe, Johannes de la Sale, Ricardus Wrange. 
Ric^ faber T; Willms Salomon T; alii multi quorum nomina 
ignorant vi 1 armis venerunt ad terrara abbie Glastonie in 
vplini que est in manu domini regis racione uacationis 
abbathie predicte 1 janta ipius abbie Glastonie in eodem 
manerio crescentia contra pacem dfii regis [combusserunt]. 
Et dicunt quod Robertus Tudde balliuus de Axminstre alia 
enormia ibidem fecit videlicet cepit triginta 1 septem au^ia 
ipius abbie Glaston pro quadam secta quam exigit abbas de 
Niwenham ab abbatem Glastonie ad turnu quod senescallus 
ipius abbis tenuit in vltimo hundredo suo quod tenuerunt post 
festum sancti Michaelis vbi pdictus abbas Glastonie nullam 
sects debet nee homines sui nee etiam homines de feodo ipius 
abbatis Glastonie eo quod quieti sunt per carta abbatis et 
conuentus de Newenham. In cuius rei testimoniii huic 
inquisitioni sigilla sua alternatiui apposuerunt Da¥ dictis 
die 1 anno. 

If Breue judicii. 

Rex vicecomiti deuonie salutem. Pone per uadium 1, 
meliores plegg* Johanne abbatem de niwenliam fratrem 
henricu de la bonei, lucam le messer, Williii Russel, Willin 
Todde, Richm de cleyhuUe, Nicholaum Pin T; nichm dare 
quod sint coram nobis a die pasche in quinta septim ad 
rnded' nobis de placito quare ipi simul cum fre Ricardo le 
berker, Ricco filio amiable de schapewik, Johfie de egelcumbe, 
Johanne filio Ricci Care et Willmo Salomon et alii nuper 
uenerunt ad quamdam seperalem pastur^ in vplim que 
pertinet ad abbathiam Glastonie in manu nra existente 
occasione vacationis eiusdem 1 de qua ultimus eiusdem 
abbathie obiit seisiau et janct? l alia in eadem pastura 
crescentia combusserunt l alia enormia ibidem perpetrauerunt 
ad grave dampnii ipius abbie et nostri contemptum manifestimi 
et contra pacem nostram ut dicitur. Et ad ostendendum 
quare non fuerunt coram nobis in crastino purificationis beate 
marie sicut attachiati fuerunt 1 siimoniti per bonos suin. 
Robertum Squirel 1 Reginad* fayth primos uel pMicti 
Johannis abbis de Newenham 1 adam Scurel 1 Thoma fait 
primos pl'Sdicti fratris henrici de la bouei^ Et regni^ Glade- 
wine et Willm velfais Smos_prpredicti luce le messer. Et 
reginaldus copiner et Willin blonoch primos plef predicti 
Wiiri 1 hug* douile 1 thorn bal. primos pl'predicti Roberti 



NEWENHAM ABBEY. 



197 



Tudde 1 Ricm le pottere 1 nichm pin primos pl'pdicti nich*i 

de cleihuUe 1 ricrm humas 1 Walterum Grey ^mos pl'pdicti 

nich'i pin. Thorn Grugg* % Thoin tannur primos pi' pMicti 

nichi dare quod sint coram nobis ad prefatum terminiii ante 

ludiciu suii de hoc quod non huerunt predictos Johannem 

abbatem de Niwenham 1: alios coram nobis in crastino 

purifici.tionis beate marie sicut eos pleg* precipim^ tibi quod 

no ommittes propter libertatem abbatis quin ponas per vad' 1 

saluos pleg" f^dictos fratrem Ricardum le berker, Ricrm filium 

amabile de schapwik, Johannem de Egelcombe T; alios quod 

smt coram nobis ad j^fatum terminu ad respondendum 

nobis simul cum pdictis Johanne abbate de Niwenham 1 

aliis de predicto placito. Et vnde tu tpe nobis mandasti in 

crastino pur^ be mar^ quod preceperas balliuis predicte 

hberta^ quod attachia? pdictos frem Riccm le berker T; alios 

quod cent coram nobis ad eundem terminu ad respondendum 

nobis simul cum ^dictis Johanne abbate de Nievenham 1 

aliis de predicto placito qui nichil inde fecerunt 1 habeas ibi 

nomma secundoa pleg* 1 sum pleg* % hoc bre. Tes# ^ de 

hengham apud Radinge v« die febrr anno regni nri tercio. 

Memorandum quod cum eet contencio inter uiros religiosos 
dominum Johannem abbatem 1 couentum Glastonie ex una 
parte % Johannem abbatem % conuentum de Niwenham ex 
parte altera super terrarum suarum sese contingenaciu ter- 
minis atq, metis tandem pdictus abbas de Niwenham volens 
nee sufferens diucius durare sed omnino uolens dirimere 
Htis materiam ante mote pro se T; conuentu suo uadiauit 
pdictis abbati et conuentui Glastonie triginta marcas pro 
bono pacis 1 ob captandam ab eisdem graciam T; fauorem. 
Ita quod p'dictus abbas T; conuentus de Newenham predictis 
abbati T; conuentui Glastonie dabunt et soluent Decem marcas 
argenti de summa p'dictarum triginta marcarum citra nat' 
domini proxim futu^ et residue xx marcaru de summa 
eadem ex predictorum abbis T; conuentus Glastonie tali con- 
dicione T; mode sunt posite in respectu ut si bene se gesserunt 
abbas T; conuent^ de Newenha erga abbatem % conuentum 
Glastonie nominatim in negocio perambulationis utriusque 
partis assensu inter terras suas faciendis quam neutra pars 
uUo malo ingenio impediet nee peruertet. Statim peracto 
negocio penitus remittentur nee alterutri parte competet actio 
per f^sentes. Dat londoii meng oc? anno drii m^'.cc. septua- 
gessTo qnto. 

jf Carta abb! de Newenha de quietaclamancia secte hundr^ 
T; torno vicecoin de vplim. 

Omnibus has literas visuris uel audituris Henricus di gratia 



5 Feb. 1275. 



Oct. 1275. 



■!■■ 



l. 



'■a 
t 



198 



THE CISTEBCIAiJ HOUSES OF DEVON. 



ub\ 



abbas de Niwenham 1 eiusde loci conuentus salutera eternam 
in diio. Nouert uniuersitas uestra nos pro nob' et succes- 
soribus nois imperpetuu remisisse et quietumclamasse domino 
raictii abbati glast? et eiusdem loci conuentui T; ecclie Glas- 
tonie totum ius 1 clameum quod huimus uel here potuimiis 
versus ipm abbatem glastonie % successores suosl onines hom- 
ines suos T; o5 homines de feodis suis de manerio suo de vplim 
de sec? hundred' ^ tomo vic^ que nos exegimus ab eis ad 
hundred* nostrum de axeminstre quod habemus de dono 
re^'w^di de moun T; confirmacione domini henrici regis filii 
regis Johannis ^ similiter de sexdeceim solid' T; octo denai^ 
quos exegimus ab eisdem per annii vnde decem solidos sunt 
de turno vicecom et vj soP et viij d' sunt de quodam redditu 
qui uocatur horderesgeld' vnde inplacitauimus predictum 
raichaeleni abbatem per breue domini regis in comi? exoii. 
Ita quod nee nos nee successores nostri unquam in posterum 
clamare uel exigere poterimus de predictis abbate nee conuentu 
Glastoii nee eorum successoribus nee etiam ab hominibus suis 
nee ab hominibus de food' suis de pdicto manerio de vplim 
ahquam sectam aut pdictos sexdecim solidos 1 iiij denar per 
annu uel aliquod aliud quod ad nos uel successores nostros 
aliquo occasione tempore predicti hundredi nri de Axeminstre 
accidere poterit. Hoc solumodo saluo nobis T; successoribus 
nris quod si balliuos nrox abbatis T; conuentus de vplim in 
executione mandati diii regis quod per bre suum viceeofn 
deuonie demandat^ fuerit T: postea nobis per return Q per ipm 
vicecom de mandat^ fuerit 1 nos postea idem mandatum per 
returnu predictis ballivis ipius abbatis de vplim demanda- 
uerimus negligentes ee constiterit ita quod mandatum domini 
regis in hac parte non fuerint {sic) executi, bene licebit tunc 
ballivo de axeminstre qui pro tempore f uit tanquam balliuo 
vicecom T; non tanquam balliuo nro predictum manerium de 
vplim intrare 1 mandatum illud ea nice executioni demandare, 
ita quod nee pdictus abbati 1 conuentui Glastonie nee eccTe 
Glastonie nee hominibus suis de vplim per mandati illius 
executioni aliquod unquam in posterum preiudiciu gene- 
retur omnes autem prescriptas libertates predictis abbati 1, 
conventui Glastonie ac ecctie Glastonie contra omnes homines 
1; feminas impei'petuu warantizabimus T; pro hac remissione 
l quietaclamancia ac warentia iddem abbas T. conuentus 
Glastonie dederunt nob quadraginta marcas. In cuius rei 
testimoniu huic scripto sigillum nrm apposui hiis testib) 
dominis Reginaldo de moun, Henrico de traci, Johe balon, 
Waltero de bathoii tunc vicecom deuon, Willmo de leighe 
militib}, Willmo le bray, Ricio de Craswelle 1 aliis. 



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